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SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

ECE 120 Signals and Spectra

Compliments to
Dr. Randell U. Espina, PECE,REE
of Ateneo De Davao University
for the notes on this course

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Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Signals and Systems


Signals represent a message or information and
are represented mathematically as functions of one
or more independent variables, e.g. time, t.
A system is an operation that transforms an input
signal u(t) into output signal y(t).
u(t)

SYSTEM

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

y (t)

Types of Signals
Signals can either be continuous or discrete in both
time and amplitude

Two basic types of signals are


Continuous time and amplitude (analog) signals
Discrete time and amplitude (digital) signals
Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Types of Signals
A Continuous time signal is defined for a
continuum of values of the independent variable

The domain is an unaccountable set and it will have


some value at every instant of time.
Examples are sine wave, cosine wave, triangular
wave, signals derived in proportion with physical
quantities such as temperature, pressure, etc

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Types of Signals
A Discrete time signal is an indexed sequence of
real or complex numbers, hence, may be any
function of an integer-valued variable, n, denoted
by x[n].

The domain is a countable set and are often


derived by sampling a continuous time signal or by
recording the number of events of a given kind over
finite time periods

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Real or Complex
A signal x(t) is a real signal if its value is a real
number
A signal x(t) is a complex signal if its value is a
complex number of the form

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Deterministic or Random
Deterministic signals are those signals whose
values are completely specified for any given time
which means they can be modeled by a known
function time, t.
Random signals are those signals that take
random values at any given time and must be
characterized statistically.

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Even or Odd
A signal x (t) or x[n] is referred to as an even signal
if

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Even or Odd
A signal x (t) or x[n] is referred to as an odd signal
if

Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Periodic or Nonperiodic
A continuous-time signal x ( t ) is said to be
periodic with period T if there is a positive
nonzero value of T for which

Where t denotes time and T is a constant

The period T defines the duration of one complete


cycle
Any signal for which there is no value of T to satisfy
the condition stated above is aperiodic or
nonperiodic
Engr. Tanya G. Molarto AY 2012-2013 MSU-GenSan

Thank You !

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