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Presented byRAHUL KESARWANI MBA (II SEMESTER)
Safety refers to the absence of accidents. Stated differently, safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of accidents.
- K Aswathappa Relative freedom from danger, risk, or threat of harm, injury, or loss to personnel and/or property, whether caused deliberately or by accident. - www.businessdictionary.com
TYPE OF ACCIDENTS
NEED FOR SAFETY
Cost saving – Two types of costs are incurred by the management when an accident occurs i.e.
1) Direct cost- It may be in the form of compensation payable to the dependents of victim if the accident is fatal, and medical expenses incurred in treating the patient if the accident is non fatal. 2) Indirect cost – It includes loss on account of down time of operators , slowed up production rate of other workers, materials spoiled and labor for cleaning, and damages to equipment.
Increased Productivity – Safety promotes productivity because employee in safe plants can devote more time on improving the quality and quantity of their output and spend less time worrying about their safety and well being. Moral – Safety is important on human grounds too. Managers must undertake accident prevention measures to minimize the pain and suffering the injured worker and his/her family is often exposed to as a result of the accident.
Legal – There are legal reasons too for undertaking safety measures. There are laws convering occupational health and safety, and penalties for non compliance have become quite severe. The responsibility extends to the safety and health of surrounding community, too. The supreme court held : “ An enterprise which is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous industry which poses a potential threat to the health and safety of the persons working in the factory and industry in the surrounding areas, owes an absolute and non-degradable duty to the community to ensure that no harm results to anyone on account of the hazardous or inherently dangerous nature.”
Safety programme deals with the prevention of accidents and with minimizing the resulting loss and damages to person and property. Five basic principles must govern the safety programme of an organization these are :-
1) Industrial accidents resulting from a multiplicity of factors must be traced to their root causes. 2) The most important function of safety program is to identify potential hazards, provide effective safety facilities and equipment and to take prompt remedial action.
3) The safety police should be determined by top level management and it must be continuously involved in monitoring safety performance and in ensuring that corrective action is taken when necessary. 4) The management and supervision must be made fully accountable for safety performance in the working areas they control. 5) All employees should be given through training in safety methods of work and they should receive continuing education and guidance on eliminating safety hazards and prevention of accidents.
A safety programme generally consists of six elements :-
Development of Safety Policy Organization for Safety
Evaluation of Effectiveness Implementation of the Programme of Causes for Accidents Analysis
1) Strategic Choices – Some of the strategic choices are :
1.1 Managers must determine the level of protection the organization will provide for employees. 1.2 Managers can decide whether a safety programme will be formal or informal. 1.3 Managers can also be proactive or reactive in developing procedures or plans with respect to employee safety. 1.4 Managers can decide to use the safety of workers as a marketing tool for the organization.
2) Safety Policy – Safety policy specifies the firm’s goals and designations the responsibilities and authority for their achievement. It may also contain caveats and sanctions for failing to fulfill them.
Specifically, a safety policy must contain a declaration of the organizations intent and the means by which the intent is to be realized.
3) Organization for Safety – Companies constitute safety committees which are, composed of employees from across the organization. Typically, safety committees serve in advisory capacities and are responsible for such tasks as reviewing safety procedures, making recommendations for eliminating specific safety and health hazards, investigating accidents, fielding safety- related complaints from employees and monitoring statutory compliances.
4. Causes, Extent and Remedies for Accidents – Causes - Causes are of two types.
Unsafe Acts of Persons 1. Operating without clearance, failure to heed warning. at an 2. Operating or Working unsafe speed 3. Making safety device inoperative. 4.Using equipments unsafely. 5. Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc. 6. Taking an unsafe position or posture. 7. Working on moving or dangerous equipment. abusing, 8. Distracting, teasing, etcFailure to use attire or personal 9. protective devices.
Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Condition 1. Inadequately guarded, guards of improper height, strength, required 2. Unguarded, absence of mesh, etcDefective, rough, sharp, guards. 3. slippery, decayed, cracked, etc 4. Unsafely designed machines, tools, etc.. arranged, poor 5. Unsafely housekeeping, congestion, blocked 6. Inadequately lighted, sources of exits, etc glare, etc 7. Inadequately ventilated, impure oilUnsafelyetc 8. source, clothed, no goggles, glares or masks, high heels etc 9. Unsafe process, mechanical, chemical, electrical, nuclear, etc
Accident Rates – Accidents is described in terms of frequency, severity and incidence. Organizations generally maintain frequency, severity and incidence records. Number of Recordable injuries * 1 million Incidence rate =
Number of employee exposure hour Severity rate = Frequency rate = Total hours charged * 1 million Number of employee hours worked Number of disabling injuries * 1 million Number of employee hours worked
Extent of Accidents – It is estimated that 14 lakh workers in India, five or seven times more than in Japan, U.K and U.S. are exposed to accidents. The problem is much more severe because there are thousands of unregistered industrial accidents, most of them small and tiny, which pose a major threat to the workers and the community.
Remedies - The method and devices for the prevention of accidents are now available in plenty. There are certain principles which enables the management to understand the causes and consequences of accidents and to introduce suitable safety devices. The principles are –
1) The occurrence of an injury invariably results from a complete sequence of factors, the last one of these being accident itself. 2) The unsafe act of employees are responsible for a majority of accidents. 3) The employee who suffers a disability/injury caused by an unsafe act has an average of over 300 narrow escapes from serious injury that might have resulted from the very same unsafe act.
4) The occurrence of an accident that results in an injury is largely preventable. 5) Four basic methods are available for the prevention of accidents- engineering revision, persuasion and appeal, personal adjustment and discipline. 6) The humanitarian incentive for preventing accident injury is supplemented by a realization of two powerful economic factors, namely –
(i) A safe establishment is efficient and an unsafe establishment is ineffective. (ii) The direct employer costs of industrial injuries for compensation claims and for medical treatment are but onefourth of the total which the employer must bear.
7) The method most valued in accident prevention are analogous to the methods required for the control of quality, cost and quantity of production. 8) The supervisor is the key person in industrial accident prevention. 9) Safety should be driven internally, not externally. 10)Do not count on common sense for safety improvement. 11)Safety incentive programs should focus on process rather than outcomes . 12)When people feel empowered, their safe behavior spreads to other situations.
Training is Safety – Systematic training of industrial employees is necessary if they are to do their jobs efficiently and safely. Training practice will be found to vary widely from company to company and the difference will be influenced by the size of company, the types of jobs performed, and awareness of the management regarding the importance of training. It is not enough if workers are trained on the methods of avoiding accidents. They must be trained on the ways of minimizing damage .
5) Implementing the Policy – For implementing the policy the programme must cover – Procedures for reporting accidents, hazards, fire precautions, first aid. Arrangements for instructing workers about safe working methods and for training employees in safety matters. Special rules for work done at a height, in confined spaces, on certain electrical equipment or unguarded machinery. The maintenance of equipment and the provision of proper inspection and testing arrangements. General rules on safe working habits.
Special rules for internal transport drivers. Arrangement for checking new machinery and materials. Safety inspection. The provision of personal protective equipment, and rules as to its use. Suggestions on safety matters.
6) Programme Evaluation – Mainly there two methods for evaluating the effectiveness of safety programme viz -Organic and Systematic.
Organic Measures - This method attempts to evaluate how well the safety programme is designed and fulfilled. The techniques used are – 1 Safety Inspection 2 Safety Audit 3 Comparison
Systematic Measures – The concern is with the outcome of the programme i.e. the achievement of the aim the programme is designed to serve.
Health as defined by World Health Organization (WHO), it is a "State of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis.
We can examine employee health from following angles – 1) Physical Health – Bad health of employees results in reduced
productivity, high unsafe acts, and increased absenteeism. A healthy worker on other hand, produces results opposite to these. Physical health can be affected by several causes shown below Health Hazards Causes Lung Cancer White Lung Disease Black Lung Disease Coal dust Brown Lung Disease Cotton Dust Leukemia Benzene, Radiation Cancer Asbestos, radiation, Vinyl chloride, coke oven emissions Sterility Radiations Deteriorating Eye Sight Chemical fumes Hearing Impairment High noise levels
2) Mental Health – In resent years, mental health of employees, particularly that of executives, has engaged the attention of employers. There are 3 reasons for this –
1 Mental breakdowns are common in modern days because of pressures and tensions. 2 Mental disturbances of various types result in reduced productivity and lower profits for the organization. 3 Mental illness takes its toll through alcoholism, high employee turnover, and poor human relationships.
A mental health service is generally rendered in the following ways –
1) Psychiatric counseling. 2) Education of company personnel in the nature and the importance of mental health. 3) Development and maintenance of an effective human relations programme.
3) Noise Control – Noise can only be minimized but cannot be totally eliminated, constant exposure to noise not only impairs hearing ability, it has adverse effects on general health of the employees. Noise control cal be achieved -
1 At the source 2 Through enclosures 3 By absorption 4 By ear protection
4) Work Stress – Stress refers to an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such reactions. Stress is mostly understood to be negative. But it has positive dimensions also. Where stress brings out something better from an individual, it is called eustress.