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Types of OPAMP

+
-

+
General Purpose OPAMP

+
Norton OPAMP

Instrumentation OPAMP

Isolation OPAMP

General Purpose OPAMP


+
+
Moderate values of the key parameters
JFET based differential input
High input impedance
Good noise reduction

Norton OPAMP
+
Moderate values of the key parameters
Current differencing OPAMP ( have different internal structure)
Non-inverting input is derived from inverting input
Current mirror circuit is used

Instrumentation OPAMP
+
Very high input impedance
Very large CMRR
Extremely low values of offsets
Single ended input
Internally combination of THREE OPAMPs.

Isolation OPAMP
+
Output is electrically isolated from input
Differential input, single ended output
Isolation impedance in 1012 ohm, voltage 1kV

Interpreting OPAMP
A709 : First IC OPAMP in 1965 by Fairchild
A741 : Next
A741A, A741B, A741C and A741E
MC1741 : Motorola Corporation
LM741

: National Semiconductor

SN72741 : Texas Instrument


LM709 : National Semiconductor
LM725 : National Semiconductor
LM324 : National Semiconductor (Quad Comparator)

Desired Characteristics of an OPAMP


Infinite input impedance, RIN =
Zero output impedance, ROUT = 0
Infinite gain, Av =
Zero input offset voltage
Zero input offset current
Infinite bandwidth
Infinite CMRR
Not temperature dependent
Perfect balance, when v1in = v2in , vout = 0.

Pin configuration of 741


Pin 7 : Plus VCC
Pin 6 : Output terminal

Pin 8 : GND pin


8

Pin 1 and 5 : Minus


offset null and plus
offset null

UA741CN
K8X442

4
1

Pin 4 : Minus VCC

Pin 2 and 3 : Inverting and Non-inverting


input

Symbolic representation of 741


+VCC

VIN1
2

VIN2
3

4
1

-VCC
100K

VOUT

Symbolic representation of OPAMP


VIN1

VIN2

VOUT

OPAMP characteristics
Input offset voltage : The differential voltage that
may exist internally although no input is
connected externally.
Input offset voltage drift : Rate of change of input
Therefore
output
may exist even if no input is
offset
voltagean
with
temperature.
connected.
Measured in Volt per degree celcius.
This is the voltage to be supplied at the input to
force the output to zero.
Typical value is 2 mVolt.

OPAMP characteristics
Input bias current : Average of the
two input currents, at the two inputs.

VB2

2mV

VB1
IB1
IB2

I B1 I B 2
IB
2

VO = 0

VO 0

Input bias current drift : Rate of change of input bias


current with temperature.

OPAMP characteristics
Input offset current : Difference
of the two base currents, of an
balanced amplifier.

2mV

VO = 0

Input offset current drift

OPAMP characteristics (contd)


Output offset voltage :Voltage available at output
due to imbalance in differential amplifier.
output offset voltage drift :
Input common mode voltage range : The maximum
safe voltage which can be connected at common
mode input. Typical value is 13 V.
Input differential mode voltage range : Maximum
safe voltage in differential mode.
Output voltage range : Maximum output voltage
swing without significant distortion of the signal.

OPAMP characteristics (contd)


Offset voltage adjustment range : Range through
which the input offset voltage can be adjusted.
Typical value is 15 V
Output voltage swing : Output saturation voltage.
Typical value is 2 volts less than VCC.
Power supply rejection ratio, PSRR : ratio of change
of input offset voltage with the change of power
supply voltage.
Short circuit output current : Maximum current which
will flow through a short circuit at the output.
Large signal voltage gain : The gain is very large,
the output signal is much larger than the input,
known as large signal voltage gain.

Typical parameters of 741 OPAMP


Open loop voltage gain 100,000
Input offset voltage

2mv

Input offset current 20 nA


Input bias current 80 nA
Input resistance 2M
Offset voltage adjustment range 15
mV
Input Voltage range 13 V
CMMR 90 db

Typical parameters of 741 OPAMP


(contd)
Supply voltage rejection ratio 30 V/V
Large signal voltage gain 200,000
Output voltage swing 13 V
Output Resistance 75
Output short circuit current 25 mA
Supply current 1.7 mA
Power consumption 50 mW
Slew rate 0.5 V / s

Frequency parameters
roll off : Gain decreases as frequency increases
Av
AvD

f1 AVD f C

.707AvD

Gain bandwidth product


1

fc

f1

Slew rate
Slew rate of OPAMP

Slew rate of OPAMP

Slew rate

d V Sin2ft
m
dt
S R Vm 2fCos 2ft volt / sec
Slew rate

Slew rate of OPAMP

Vm
0

f max

SR

Vm 2

OPAMP applications
Linear Application : Output changes in
accordance with input.
Example : inverting amplifier, Voltgae buffer,
noninverting amplifier, current controlled
voltage source etc.
Non-linear Application : Output wave shape is
different from that of input signal.
Example : Differentiator, integrator,
Comparator, Schimtt trigger, Zero crossing
detector etc.

OPAMP applications
Voltage Buffer : Isolating input from
output, with unity gain.
+

V1

V1

R1

+
-

Rf

Rf
Vo
1
If R f 0 Overall gain, 1
V1
R1

Current controlled voltage source

I1

Rf

Vo I1 R f

Comparator

VIN

+
R1
VREF

+VCC

+
Output

R2

-VCC
VREF

VREF

R1

R1 R2

+(VCC -2)
-(VCC -2)

Zero crossing detector


+VCC
+
VIN
VREF

Output

+(VCC -2)

-VCC

-(VCC -2)