Manganese, Mn

Group 2

Manganese
twelfth most common element in the Earth's crust  found in soil, water, plants, animals, and air particles  does not occur naturally in a pure state, it is in the form of oxides, carbonates and silicates  encountered in the environment as a compound with oxygen, sulfur, or chlorine  an essential nutrient, required in trace amounts for human health

Manganese
exposure to high concentrations of manganese can be detrimental to health  Inorganic manganese compounds are used in the production of steel, batteries, ceramics, and dietary supplements  Organic manganese compounds are used in some pesticides, fertilizers, and in a gasoline additive  Manganese compounds can be present as dust particles in the air, and dissolved in ground water or drinking water

Biogeochemical Process
Spraying pesticides Dust and fumes of Mn

Biogeochemical Process

Biogeochemical Process

Biogeochemical Process

EFFECTS

Environment

Low content of Mn in plants can cause disturbances in plant mechanisms.  Highly toxic concentrations of Mn in soils can cause swelling of cell walls, withering of leafs and brown spots on leaves.

effects

Human

 

Primary targets of manganese toxicity are the brain and central nervous system Manganese at average levels below 5 mg/m3 have shown neurobehavioral, reproductive, and respiratory effects. Shortages of Mn cause:
        

Fatness Glucose intolerance Blood clotting Skin problems Lowered cholesterol levels Skeleton disorders Birth defects Changes of hair color Neurological symptoms

EFFECTS

Human

 

exposure to high concentrations will cause permanent damage, with symptoms of impaired neurological and neuromuscular control, mental and emotional disturbances, muscle stiffness, lack of coordination, tremors, difficulties with breathing or swallowing, and other neuromuscular problems

Matrices

Land

Sources

Element widely distributed in the earth’s crust  High concentrations of manganese have been found in tea leaves
 

Pesticides  Wheat: 10 mg/kg and Rice: 100 mg/kg  Tea leaves  Cereals, potatoes, meat, fish, and poultry.  Milk

matrices

Water

Naturally occurring in many surface and groundwater sources and in soils that may erode into these waters  It can be found in groundwater as a result of:
 naturally

occurring manganese compounds in the bedrock  its widespread use in the production of batteries and steel  its widespread use in pesticides and fertilizers

Matrices

Water

exists in well water as a naturally occurring groundwater mineral, but may also be present due to underground pollution sources.  noticeable in tap water at concentrations greater than 0.05 mg/l by imparting a color, odor, or taste to the water.

MATRICES

Air

Highest concentration of Mn is found from Mn mines, ore-processing plants, dry-cell battery plants and ferro-manganese plants  Size of Mn particles in the atmosphere varies from place to place depending on the dominant sources in an area

Remediation

"Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake" (ESADDI)
 Infants

to 6 months  0.3-0.6 mg/day  infants to 1 year  0.6-1 mg/day  1-3 years old  1-1.5 mg/day  4-10 years old  1-2 mg/day  10 years old and up  2-5 mg/day

Remediation (cont.)

Releases of Manganese are regulated through the UK Pollution, Prevention and Control (PPC) regulations
 Regulating

levels of Manganese include that concerned with combating air pollution from industrial plants

Elevated manganese levels are occasionally found in drinking water and specifically in well water. If tap water in homes with well water sources leaves black deposits or dark stains in sinks or other fixtures, families should consider getting their water tested for manganese levels.

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