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Mk.

AGROEKOLOGI

PERTANIAN
BERKELANJUTAN

Oleh:
Prof Dr Ir Soemarno, M.S.
Jur tanah FP UB Oktober 2011
1

MAKNA SAINTIFIK PERTANIAN


PERTANIAN

Biologi-Tanaman
Tanaman
BiologiTeknologi::
Teknologi
Bertanam
Bertanam
Memelihara
Memelihara
Sarana produksi:
Tanah/lahan
Benih / bibit
Air
Pupuk/Rabuk
Pestisida/ Obat
Tenaga Kerja

BUDIDAYA
TANAMAN
MANAJEMEN
USAHATANI

PANEN &
PASCAPANEN

Penanganan Hasil ;
Pengolahan; Pemasaran

TROPIKA
IKLIM
AIR
TANAH
JASAD
DINAMIKA &
RAGAM

KEBERLANJUTAN
KEBERLANJUTAN
2

PERMASALAHAN SERIUS
SERIUS dalam
dalam Pertanian
Pertanian
PERMASALAHAN

Semakin
Semakin
meningkatnya
meningkatnyabiaya
biaya
dan
danketergantungan
ketergantungan
thd
thdinput
inputeksternal
eksternal
(bahan
(bahankimia
kimiadan
dan
energi)
energi)

Semakin
Semakin
meningkatnya
meningkatnya
pencemaranair
air
pencemaran
akibatpupuk
pupukdan
dan
akibat
pestisida
pestisida

Semakinmenurunnya
menurunnya
Semakin
produktivitastanah
tanah
produktivitas
akibaterosi
erositanah
tanahdan
dan
akibat
kehilangan(pencucian)
(pencucian)
kehilangan
haradari
daritanah
tanah
hara

Semakin
Semakinmeningkatnya
meningkatnya
ancaman
ancamanresidu
residubahan
bahan
agrokimia
agrokimiathd
thdkualitas
kualitas
dan
dankeamanan
keamananpangan
pangan

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN itu Apa?

The word "sustain," from the Latin sustinere


(sus-, from below and tenere, to hold), to
keep in existence or maintain, implies longterm support or permanence.

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN = SUSTAINABLE


AGRICULTURE
Pertanian yg dapat berkembang secara tidak terbatas ke arah manfaat yg
semakin besar bagi manusia, penggunaan sumberdaya yg lebih efisien, dan
berkesetimbangan dg kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai untuk manusia dan
spesies lainnya.

Manfaat
bagi
manusia

Lingkungan yg
sesuai bagi
manu-sia &
spesies lain

Penggunaan
Penggunaan
sumberdaya
sumberdaya
yg
yg efisien
efisien

TIGA
TIGAELEMEN
ELEMEN PENTING
PENTING
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN

Income
Generation
(menghasilkan
pendapatan)

Natural
Natural
Resource
Resource
Conservation
Conservation
(Konservasi
(Konservasi
Sumberdaya
Sumberdaya
Alam)
Alam)

Food availability
availability
Food
and consumption
consumption
and
(Pangan dan
dan
(Pangan
bahan konsumsi
konsumsi
bahan
lain)
lain)

Sustainable
agriculture
integrates
three main
goals:
environmental
stewardship,
farm
profitability,
and
prosperous
farming
communities.

KONSEP
KONSEP LOW
LOW INPUT
INPUT
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN
ECOLOGICAL
ECOLOGICAL
FARMING
FARMING
BIOLOGICAL
BIOLOGICAL
FARMING
FARMING

BIODYNAMIC
BIODYNAMIC
FARMING
FARMING

NATURAL
NATURAL
FARMING
FARMING

AGROECOLOGICAL
AGROECOLOGICAL
FARMING
FARMING
ORGANIC
ORGANIC
FARMING
FARMING

REGENERATIVE
REGENERATIVE
FARMING
FARMING

LOWRESOURCES
RESOURCES
LOW
FARMING
FARMING
ECO-AGRICULTURE
ECO-AGRICULTURE
ECO-FARMING
ECO-FARMING

ALTERNATIVE
ALTERNATIVE
FARMING
FARMING
8

PRASYARAT BAGI
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
1.
1. Kualitas
Kualitas tanah
tanah tidak
tidak boleh
boleh rusak,
rusak,
topsoil
topsoil tidak
tidak boleh
boleh menipis
menipis
2. Sumberdaya
Sumberdaya air
air tersedia
tersedia harus
harus mampu
mampu memenuhi
memenuhi
2.
kebutuhantanaman,
tanaman,tdk
tdkberlebihan
berlebihan&
&tdk
tdkkekurangan
kekurangan
kebutuhan
3.
3. Integritas
Integritas biologis
biologis dan
dan ekologis
ekologis harus
harus dilestarikan
dilestarikan melalui
melalui
berbagai
berbagai upaya
upaya pengelolaan
pengelolaan sumberdaya
sumberdaya genetik,
genetik, siklus
siklus
hara,
hara,hama
hamatanaman,
tanaman,dll
dll
4.
4. Sistem
Sistemharus
harusmenguntungkan
menguntungkansecara
secaraekonomis
ekonomis
5.
5. Ekspektasi
Ekspektasi sosial
sosial dan
dan norma
norma budaya
budaya harus
harus
kebutuhan
kebutuhansandang
sandangdan
danpangan
panganmasyarakat
masyarakat

dipenuhi,
dipenuhi, spt
spt

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental
stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities.
These goals have been defined by a variety of disciplines and may be looked at
from the vantage point of the farmer or the consumer.

DESKRIPSI
Sustainable agriculture refers to the ability of a farm to produce food
indefinitely, without causing severe or irreversible damage to ecosystem
health.
Two key issues are biophysical (the long-term effects of various practices on
soil properties and processes essential for crop productivity) and socioeconomic (the long-term ability of farmers to obtain inputs and manage
resources such as labor).
10

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
As it pertains to
agriculture, sustainable
describes farming
systems that are
"capable of maintaining
their productivity and
usefulness to society
indefinitely.
Such systems... must be
resource-conserving,
socially supportive,
commercially
competitive, and
environmentally
sound."
11

CIRI PENTING
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

CROP
CROP
ROTATION
ROTATION
Field crop
crop -Field
Legume -Legume
Forage crop
crop
Forage

PestControl:
Control:
Pest

NUTRIENT
NUTRIENT
MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT

Prod.
Prod.
TERNAK:
TERNAK:
Pakan
Pakan hijauan
hijauan
Rabuk
Rabukkandang
kandang

Biologicalcontrol
control
Biological
Pesticidetreatment
treatment
Pesticide

Pupuk--Rabuk
Rabuk
Pupuk
Kandang/Kompos-Kandang/Kompos
RabukHijau
Hijau
Rabuk

Weed
WeedControl
Control
Olah
Olahtanah
tanah
Selective
Selective
Herbicides
Herbicides

12

PELUANG
PELUANG BESAR
BESAR untuk
untuk
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN

Internal Soil

External Hydrophonic Medium

Sun: Radiasi

Sumber utama energi

Energi ini sbg katalis untuk


konversi energi fosil

Water

Utamanya hujan dan


ditunjang air irigasi

Sistem distribusi air terpusat,


Bendungan-waduk-jaringan

Nitrogen

Dihimpun dari udara


dan di-daur ulang

Terutama dari pupuk sintetik


(pupuk buatan)

Mineral

dilepaskan dari cadangan


tanah dan di daur-ulang

Weed & pest


control

Biologis & Mekanis

Ditambang, diolah, diimpor


Dengan pestisida

13

PELUANG
PELUANG BESAR
BESAR untuk
untuk
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN
Internal Soil

Eksternal Hydrophonic Medium

ENERGY

Sebagian dihasilkan
on-farm

Tergantung bahan bakar


fosil

SEED

Sebagian dihasilkan
on-farm

Semuanya/seluruhnya dibeli

Management
decisions

Oleh petani & masyarakatnya

Sebagian dilakukan oleh


produsen SAPROTAN

ANIMALS
CROPPINGSYSTEM

Dihasilkan secara sinergis on-farm


Rotasi dan diversitas
sangat diutamakan

Produksi pakan di tempat


lain yg terpisah
Monocropping

14

PELUANG
PELUANG BESAR
BESAR untuk
untuk
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN
Internal Soil

External Hydrophonic Medium

VARIETAS

Tahan thd keterbatasan


air dan kesuburan tanah

Memerlukan input yang


banyak

LABOR

Sebagian besar kerja


dilakukan rumahtangga

Sebagian besar pekerjaan


dilakukan tenaga upahan
bertempat-tinggal on-farm

CAPITAL

Sumber awal rumahtangga & masyarakat;


peningkatan kesejahteraan
diinvestasikan secara lokal

Sumber awal adalah kredit


dan keuntungan terutama
mengalir ke luar dari farm

...
15

KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN
KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN
SISTEM
SISTEMPERTANIAN
PERTANIANBERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN

Pengelolaan
Kesuburan
Tanah
Integrated
Integrated
Pest
Pest
Management
Management

Pergiliran
Tanaman
Bioteknologi
Bioteknologi
&
&
Crop
Crop Breeding
Breeding

Conservation
Conservation
Tillage
Tillage

Innovative
Innovative
Cropping
Cropping
Systems
Systems

Weeds
Weeds
Management
Management

Animals
Animals Roles
Roles
Feedcrop
Feedcrop
Management
Management
16

Sustainable agriculture refers


to the ability of a farm to
produce food indefinitely,
without causing severe or
irreversible damage to
ecosystem health.

17

Productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely

18

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food
without depleting the earths resources or polluting its
environment.
It is agriculture that follows the principles of nature to
develop systems for raising crops and livestock that are,
like nature, self-sustaining.
Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social
values, one whose success is indistinguishable from vibrant
rural communities, rich lives for families on the farms, and
wholesome food for everyone.
But in the rst decade of the 21st Century, sustainable
agriculture, as a set of commonly accepted practices or a
model farm economy, is still in its infancy.
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PRODUKSI
TANAMAN
RABUK
KANDANG

TANAMAN
PAKAN DALAM
ROTASI

PRODUKSI
TERNAK

RESIDU /
LIMBAH
TANAMAN

20

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Farming sustainably means growing crops and


livestock in ways that meet three objectives
simultaneously:
Economic profit
Social benefits to the farm family and the community
Environmental conservation

Sustainability can be observed and measured;


indicators that a farm or rural community is
achieving the three objectives of sustainability
include: economic, social, environment
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PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Economic Sustainability
The family savings or net worth is consistently
going up.
The family debt is consistently going down.
The farm enterprises are consistently profitable
from year to year.
Purchase of off-farm feed and fertilizer is
decreasing.
Reliance on government payments is
decreasing.
22

The farm enterprises are profitable from


year to year:
Tumpangsari Pepaya dg padi gogo.
23

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Social Sustainability
The farm supports other businesses and
families in the community.
Money circulate within the local economy.
The number of rural families is going up or
holding steady.
Young people take over their parents'
farms and continue farming.
College graduates return to the community
after graduation.
24

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Environmental Sustainability
There is no bare ground.
Clean water flows in the farm's ditches and
streams.
Wildlife is abundant.
Fish are prolific in streams that flow
through the farm.

The farm landscape is


diverse in vegetation.
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The farm landscape is diverse in


vegetation

26

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

1.These three objectives are managed more as a single


unit, even though we must discuss them separately.
2.The three objectives overlap constantly. For example,
economic decisions affect the local communitybuying
from out of state instead of from a local supplier.
3.Environmental decisions affect the economicsallowing
soil erosion increases the need for irrigation and more
fertilizer.
27

Economic Sustainability
Selecting Profitable Enterprises to Ensure
Economic Sustainability
Economic sustainability increasingly depends on
selecting profitable enterprises, sound financial
planning, proactive marketing, risk management, and
good overall management.
The key for row-crop producers may be to explore
income opportunities other than traditional
commodity crops, such as contract growing of seeds
for vegetable, rice and specialty crops.
28

These specialty
crops are not for
everyone;
only a certain
number of
hectares of land
can be grown
because of
limited markets.

29

Economic Sustainability
Selecting Profitable Enterprises to Ensure Economic
Sustainability
Expanding organic markets suggest another possible
niche. "Alternative" crops like herbs, mushrooms or
guava may be an option.
When we try to produce a single product such as corn, or
groundnuts our risk is high because "all our eggs are in
one basket."
When we integrate plant and animal agriculture we
distribute overhead and risk among several enterprises.
30

When we
integrate
plant and
animal
agriculture
we distribute
overhead
and risk
among
several
enterprises.
31

Economic Sustainability

Perencanaan keuangan yang komprehensif haruslah:

The holistic financial planning process provides a monthly


roadmap to help people navigate through their financial year,
assured that the profit will be there at year's end.
The income is planned first, then a planned profit is allocated as
the first expense item.
The remaining expense money is allocated sequentially where it
will do the most good.
32

Economic Sustainability
Perencanaan keuangan yang komprehensif
haruslah:
This sequential allocation requires that the farmer spend no
more than necessary to run the enterprise for a year, while
preserving the planned profit.
This potent financial planning process empowers people to make
decisions that are simultaneously good for the environment, the
local community, and the bottom line.
Also evaluate other financial planning tools that allow enterprise
budgeting, cost calculations, partial budgeting analysis, and
these can be available from normal softwares available in the
market.
33

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Setiap usahatani memerlukan perencanaan pemasaran
yang jelas.
Marketing can take many forms, ranging from passive marketing to
the commodity chain all the way up to marketing a retail product
directly to consumers.
Which marketing method you choose will have a profound effect on
the price your product commands.
Doing some market research is essential in order to understand
your market, competition, and consumer trends, and to project
potential sales volume and prices.
Specialty and direct markets such as organic, GMO-free, and other
"green" markets yield more income but require more marketing by
the producer.

Pemasaran langsung tidak berlaku untuk setiap


orang .
34

Social Sustainability
Pengambilan keputusan
usahatani berdampak
langsung pada
masyarakat sekitarnya .
Misalnya, the decision to
expand your operation
requires the acquisition of
your neighbor's farm.
To have your neighbor's farm,
you must make the decision
that your neighbor's farm is
more important to you than
your neighbor.
35

Social Sustainability
Keputusan sosial termasuk:
1. buying supplies locally
rather than ordering from out
of state,
2. figuring out ways to connect
local consumers with your
farm,
3. taking a consumer-oriented
approach to production and
management practices where
both the farmer and
consumer wins,
4. finding opportunities to
ensure that neighboring
communities can learn about
sustainable food production.
36

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Marketing strategies such as community supported agriculture
(CSA), direct marketing through farmers markets or road side
stalls all have a positive impact on the local community.
When people have a choice between supporting local producers or
paying a little less for the products of the industrial food system,
they will often choose to support their neighbors.
Farmers selling locally benefit from differentiating their products
and services by qualities other than price.
Fresh produce, specialty items, and locally grown and processed
foods are competitive in the market place, especially when
consumer education and personal contact with the farmer are part
of the marketing plan.

37

Marketing strategies , direct marketing through


farmers markets or road side stalls all have a
positive impact on the local community.

38

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Social sustainability also
includes the quality of life of
those who work and live on the
farm, including good
communication, trust, and
mutual support.
Full family participation in farm
planning is an indication that
the quality of life is high.
Talking openly and honestly,
spending time together, a
feeling of progress toward
goals, and general happiness.
Quality of life will be defined
somewhat differently by each
individual and family, based on
their values and goals

39

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Perencanaan & Pengambilan Keputusan
Managing for three objectives simultaneously (economics, society,
environment) depends on clear goal-setting and effective decisionmaking.
Several good tools for decision-making, goal-setting, and wholefarm management are available to farmers.
It is useful to assume that if your plan will not work, then develop a
system for determining (as soon as possible) if it isn't working.
For example, if the goal includes increased biodiversity, the farmer
needs to knowquicklyif the grazing or cropping system being
used is actually increasing the number of plant species in the area
of concern.
Monitoring is particularly important in sustainable agriculture,
which relies on natural systems to replace some of the work done
by input products like fertilizer and pesticides.
40

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
Kemampuan mengevaluasi
dan merencanakan-kembali
sangat penting bagi petani
guna keberlanjutan
ushataninya
When part of the plan is not
working as intended, it
becomes necessary to replan.
The concept of planningmonitoring-controllingreplanning is a key
characteristic of HolisticManagement and is referred
to as the feedback loop.

41

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

The transition toward more sustainable


farming requires not only planning and
decision-making skills, but access to
appropriate and helpful information.
Fortunately, increased interest in sustainable
agriculture has stimulated greater
investment in research and education.
As a result, much more usable information is
available today than ever before, accessible
through various means
42

Environmental Sustainability
Sustainable agriculture can be viewed as
ecosystem management of complex
interactions among soil, water, plants,
animals, climate, and people.
The goal is to integrate all these factors into
a production system that is appropriate for
the environment, the people, and the
economic conditions where the farm is
located.
43

PUPUK

Organik

Anorganik

TANAMAN

ROTASI

Gulma

Hama

PESTISIDA

KULTIVASI
Penyakit
44

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Farms become and stay environmentally sustainable by


imitating natural systemscreating a farm landscape that
mimics as closely as possible the complexity of healthy
ecosystems.
The wastes of industrial agriculture (non-point-source
pollution) include suspended soil, nitrates, and phosphates
in stream water, and nitrates and pesticides in ground
water.

45

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

Nature tends to function in cycles, so that waste from one process


or system becomes input for another.
Industrial agriculture, in contrast, tends to function in a linear
fashion similar to a factory: inputs go in one end, and products and
waste come out the other.

It is a premise of sustainable agriculture that a


farm is a nature-based system, not a factory.
46

1. A low dependence on external / purchased inputs


2. Menggunakan sumberdaya lokal yang renewable

3. Dampak lingkungan yang menguntungkan :


on - farm & off - farm
4. Adapted to the existing local conditions
5. Long-term maintenance of productive capacity
6. Biological & cultural diversity
7. Knowledge of local inhabitants
8. Mencukupi kebutuhan barang domestik dan barang
dapat diekspor.
47

SISTEM PERTANIAN SISTEM ALAMIAH

Panen tanaman
tanaman
-- Panen
Teknologi Pengelolaan
Pengelolaan
-- Teknologi
Pemupukan // perabukan
perabukan
-- Pemupukan
Pengolahan tanah
tanah
-- Pengolahan
Pengairan
-- Pengairan
Aplikasi agrokimia
agrokimia
-- Aplikasi
Agroteknologi lainnya.
lainnya.
-- Agroteknologi
48

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

The simpler we try to make agriculture, the more


vulnerable we become to natural disasters and
marketplace changes.
When we try to produce a single product such as
wheat, corn, or soybeans we are taking on huge risk.
If instead we diversify crops and integrate plant and
animal agriculture, overhead will be spread over
several enterprises, reducing risk and increasing
profit.
Table 1 offers some comparisons between two
models of agriculturefarming as an industrial
factory and farming as a biological system.
49

When we try to produce a single


product such as rice, corn, or
soybeans we are taking on huge
risk.
50

Table 1. Comparison of the industrial and biological


models of agriculture.
Industrial model

Biological model

Energy intensive

Information intensive

Linear process

Cyclical process

Farm as factory

Farm as ecosystem

Enterprise separation

Enterprise integration

Single enterprise

Many enterprises

Monoculture

Diversity of plants and


animals

Low-value products

Higher value products

Single-use equipment

Multiple-use equipment

Passive marketing

Active marketing
51

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

On any farm, four major ecosystem processes are at work


that, if functioning properly, will conserve the soil and
water resources and eventually reduce the overall
operating costs.
Proses alamiah ini: flow, water and mineral cycles, and
ecosystem dynamics dapat diamati dan dapat dikelola.

52

53

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

Energy flow is the non-cyclical path of solar energy (sunlight) into


and through any biological system.
The natural world runs on sunlight. Our management decisions
affect how much of it is captured and put to good use on the farm.
(Savory and Butterfield, 1999)
Energy flow begins when sunlight is converted into plant growth,
and continues when animals consume plants, when predator
animals consume prey, and when microorganisms decompose dead
plants and animals.
54

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM


Some energy is lost as heat at every transfer point in the food chain.
On the farm, energy capture is enhanced by maximizingboth in
space and in timethe leaf area available for photosynthesis, and
by efficiently cycling the stored solar energy through the food
chain.
Off-season cover crops, perennial vegetation, and intercropping are
among the tools for capturing more solar energy.

Menangkap energi-matahari dan mengubahnya menjadi


produk-ekonomi merupakan sumber orisinal bagi semua
kesejahteraan
55

SIKLUS AIR

56

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

Siklus air yang efektif dicirikan oleh tidak-adanya


erosi tanah , air cepat memasuki tanah , dan
kapasitas tanah menyimpan air cukup besar .
The water cycle is improved by management
decisions that add to or maintain the groundcover
percentage and soil organic matter levelsthe goal
is to get as much water as possible into the soil
during each rainfall.

57

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

A surface mulch layer speeds water intake while reducing


evaporation and protecting the soil from erosion.
Minimizing or eliminating tillage, growing high-residue
crops and cover crops, and adding compost or manure to
the soil maintains groundcover and builds organic matter.
Streams flow year-round from the slow release of water
stored in the soil.

58

Minimizing or eliminating tillage, growing cover


crops, and adding compost or manure to the soil
maintains groundcover and builds organic matter.
59

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

Such an improvement in a soil's water-holding capacity will


have a beneficial effect on crop growth, especially during
droughty periods.

The results of an effective water cycle are low


surface runoff, low soil surface evaporation, low
drought incidence, low flood incidence, high
transpiration by plants, and high seepage of water
to underground reservoirs.
60

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM


Pengelolaan bahan
organik tanah sangat
penting dalam usahatani
sayuran semusim.
One study (Hudson, 1994),
showed that raising the
percentage of organic matter
from 1% to 2% in sandy soil
increased the available water
content of that soil by 60%
(from 5% of total soil volume
to 8%).
61

Pengelolaan bahan organik tanah sangat


penting dalam budidaya tanaman tebu.
62

DEKOMPOSISI RESIDU TANAMAN YG MISKIN N


Nisbah C/N

60

Imobilisasi neto

20
Jumlah

NO3-

4 - 8 minggu

Evolusi CO2

Mineralisasi
neto
NO3- yg baru

CO2
Waktu

63

SIKLUS MINERAL

64

TANAMAN

PANEN
ATMOSFER

RESIDU

TANAH

PUPUK

KEHILANGAN
65

N2, N2O

NH3
Pupuk N
RABUK

UREA
LIAT

NH4+

BOT

NO3-

Jasad renik
Pencucian

66

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM


A well-functioning mineral cyclethe movement of
nutrients from the soil through the crops and animals and
back to the soilmeans less need for fertilizer and feed
from off the farm.

Dalam ekosistem alamiah, unsur hara yang diperlukan


oleh tanaman selalu ber-siklus secara kontinyu dengan
sedikit sekali limbah yang terbuang dan tidak
memerlukan tambahan pupuk.
Ultimately, to be sustainable, we need to find ways to use
the natural mineral cycle to minimize our off-farm purchase
of minerals.
67

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

Conditions and practices that inhibit the natural mineral


cycleerosion, nutrient leaching, organic matter
depletion, selling hay or grain off the farmtend to
reduce the farm's sustainability.
Practices that enhance the mineral cycle include on-farm
feeding of livestock, careful management of manure and
crop residues, use of catch crops to reduce nutrient
leaching losses, and practices that prevent erosion.

68

SUSTAINABLE AGRIC. SYSTEM:


SOIL EROSION & LAND DEGRADATION
1.1.Tanpa
Tanpaolah
olahtanah
tanahatau
atauolah
olahtanah
tanahminimum
minimum
2.2.Life
Lifemulching
mulching-----legume
legumeciver
civercrops
crops
3.3.Alley
Alleycropping
cropping&
&agroforestry
agroforestry
4.4.Supplying
Supplyingmulch:
mulch: Erosi
Erosidan
danBOT
BOT
5.5.Fiksasi
FiksasiN2
N2 dan
dandaur
daurulang
ulanghara
hara

6.
6.Minimizing
Minimizingfallowing
fallowing

7.7.Integrasi
Integrasitanaman
tanamanpangan
pangan,,pepohonan,
pepohonan,rerumputan
rerumputandan
dan
ternak
ternak
8.8..
.
69

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

An effective ecosystem dynamic is indicated by high


diversity of plants and animals both above and below
ground.
"Diversity" bukan hanya banyaknya spesies , tetapi juga
ragam genetik dalam suatu spesies , dan struktur umur
dalam setiap populasi .
Greater diversity produces greater stability within the
system and minimizes pest problems.
Our choices of practices and tools directly affect the
level of biodiversity we have on the farm ( Table 2).
70

POLA TANAM DAN BIODIVERSITAS


PERTANIAN
Table 2. Listing of tools by their effect on
biodiversity
Increased
Biodiversit
y

Intercroppin
g

Decreased
Biodiversit
y

Monocroppin
Tillage
g

Crop
rotation

Cover crops

Multispecies
grazing

Herbicides

Insecticides

71

PERGILIRAN
PERGILIRAN TANAMAN
TANAMAN dalam
dalam
PERTANIAN
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN
BERKELANJUTAN
PADI
PADI -- PADI
PADI -- KEDELAI
KEDELAI
PADI
PADI -- KEDELAI
KEDELAI -- JAGUNG
JAGUNG
JAGUNG
JAGUNG // KEDELAI
KEDELAI -- UBIKAYU
UBIKAYU

Manfaat
Manfaat
Biologis
Biologis

Manfaat
Manfaat
Ekonomi
Ekonomi
Manfaat
Manfaat
Lingkungan
Lingkungan

BIOLOGICAL
BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURING
STRUCTURING
72

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM

The first step toward increasing biodiversity on the farm is


crop rotation, which helps break weed and pest life cycles
and provides complementary fertilization among the crops
in the planting sequence.
Advancing from rotation to strip intercrops brings a
higher level of biodiversity and increases sunlight capture.
Misalnya tumpangsari JAGUNG dan KEDELAI ;
PISANG dan NANAS; TEBU dan RUMPUT GAJAH .
73

Advancing from rotation to strip intercrops brings


a higher level of biodiversity and increases sunlight
capture.
For example, Strip intercropping of sugarcane and
elephant-grasses.
74

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM


Borders, windbreaks, and
special plantings for natural
enemies of pests provide
habitat for beneficial
organisms, further
increasing biodiversity and
stability.
The addition of appropriate
perennial crops, shrubs, and
trees to the landscape
enhances ecosystem
dynamics still further.
75

The addition of
appropriate
perennial crops,
and trees to the
landscape
enhances
ecosystem
dynamics still
further.
76

Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM


These four ecosystem processes (energy flow, water cycle,
mineral cycle, and ecosystem dynamics) function together
as a whole, each one complementing the others.
When we modify any one of these, we affect the others as
well.
When we build our farm enterprises around these
processes, we are applying nature's principles to sustain
the farm for our family and for future generations.
When we fight nature's processes, we incur extra costs and
create more problems, hurting ourselves and the ecosystem
on which we depend.
77

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM


When beginning the
transition, the big
question is how to
apply the principles of
economic profitability,
social enhancement,
and ecological
improvement .

in the field,
in the
community,
in the financial
process.

78

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM

The ultimate goal is to farm in such a way that we extract


our living as the interest, while preserving the social, water,
and soil capital.
We want to ensure that our activities do not compromise
the landscape and community resources over the long
term.
Now let's look at some management concepts aimed at
fostering the four ecosystem processes discussed earlier.

79

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM


Menjaga permukaan tanah selalu tertutup vegetasi
sepanjang tahun
Under natural conditions the soil remains covered with a
skin of dead plant material, which prevents and moderates
temperature extremes, increases water penetration and
storage, and enhances soil aeration.
Most importantly, the soil skin maintains soil structure and
prevents erosion by softening the impact of falling
raindrops.

80

Under conditions
the soil remains
covered with a skin
of dead plant
material, which
prevents and
moderates
temperature
extremes,
increases water
penetration and
storage, and
enhances soil
aeration.

81

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM


Menjaga permukaan tanah selalu tertutup vegetasi
sepanjang tahun

Bare ground, on the other hand, is vulnerable to water


and wind erosion, dries out more quickly, and loses
organic matter rapidly.
The major productivity costs to the farm associated with
soil erosion come from the replacement of lost nutrients
and reduced water holding ability, accounting for 50 to
75% of productivity loss. (Pimentel et al., 1995)
82

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM


Menjaga permukaan tanah selalu tertutup vegetasi
sepanjang tahun

Material tanah yang terangkut oleh EROSI mengandung tiga


kali lebih banyak unsur hara dibandingkan dnegan material
tanah yang tertinggal, dan sekitar 1.5 - 5 kali lebih kaya
bahan organik . (Pimentel et al., 1995)
This organic matter loss not only results in reduced water
holding capacity and degraded soil aggregation, but also
loss of plant nutrients, which must then be replaced with
fertilizers.
83

PENERAPAN PRINSIP EKOSISTEM


Menjaga permukaan tanah selalu tertutup
vegetasi sepanjang tahun
The table below shows the effect of slight, moderate,
and severe erosion on organic matter, soil
phosphorus level, and plant-available water on a silt
loam soil in Indiana.
(Schertz et al., 1984)
84

Table 3. Effect of erosion on organic matter,


phosphorus, and plant-available water.
Organic
matter

Phophorus

Plant-available
water

Kg/ha

Slight

3.0

69.50

7.4

Moderate

2.5

68.38

6.2

Severe

1.9

44.84

3.6

Erosion level

Source: Schertz et al., 1984.


85