Discovering Computers 2010

Living in a Digital World

Objectives Overview

See Page 513 for Detailed

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

2

Objectives Overview

See Page 513 for Detailed

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

3

File Processing vs Database
File Processing Redundant: same fields, multiple files Isolated: separate files Specific to a functional area Calculations on data Programming/data integrated Databases Many views to same data Related files/tables Data shared across functional areas Filter, sort, group, link, update Data separate from programming

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

4

File Processing Versus Databases

Page 525 Figure 10-10

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

5

Databases, Data, and Information
• Database software, often called a database management system (DBMS), allows users to:

Page 515

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

6

Popular Types of Databases

• Relational: data in two-dimensional tables • Object-oriented: data & instructions in objects • Multi-dimensional: data in dimensions

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

7

Data Models
Data Models define:  Rules and standards for organizing data  How users view the data  They do NOT define how the data is arranged on a disk
 

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

8

Data Models for Popular DBMSs

Page 533 Figure 10-18

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

9

Relational Databases
• A relational database stores data in tables that consist of fields and records • A relationship is a link between tables


Page 533 Figure 10-20

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

10

Relational Databases
• Each table contains data about one subject • Each data item about subject is in one field • A collection of fields makes up one record •

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

11

Relational Databases
• Table may be called a RELATION • Field may be called an ATTRIBUTE • Record may be called a TUPLE •

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

12

Relational Database
• Stores data relationships between tables • One field (attribute) or combination uniquely identifies a record: PRIMARY KEY • NORMALIZATION is the process of eliminating duplication •
Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10 13

The Hierarchy of Data
• A record is a group of related fields
– A primary key uniquely identifies each record

• A data file is a collection of related records

Page 519 Figure 10-4

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

14

The Hierarchy of Data
• Data is organized in layers
– Files, records, fields, characters

Page 517 Figure 10-2

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

15

Object-Oriented Database
• • • • Stores data in objects Stores instructions to process the data Objects are re-usable Handles unstructured data
– Maps – Photos – Videos

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

16

Object-oriented database (OODB)
• Stores data in objects • Examples of applications appropriate for an object-oriented database include:

Page 534

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

17

Multi-dimensional Databases
• Store data in dimensions • Dimensions: time, products, policies, etc. • Consolidates views of data quickly • Efficient at summarizing large numbers

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

18

Multidimensional Databases

Page 535 Figure 10-22

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

19

Multidimensional Databases
• A multidimensional database can store data in more than two dimensions of data
– Sometimes known as a hypercube – Can consolidate data much faster than a relational database

C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Pages 535 - 536 th e n cl ck D a ta i W a re h o u se s

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

20

Data warehouses
• A data warehouse is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions • It may be distributed • Data mining finds patterns and relationships

C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Pages 535 - 536 th e n cl ck D a ta i W a re h o u se s

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

21

Maintaining Data
• File maintenance refers to the procedures that keep data current

Page 520

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

22

Validating Data Integrity
• Compare data to a set of rules after you enter it • Reduce data entry errors

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

23

Validating Data Integrity
• Range check • Alpha or Numeric check • Non-blank

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

24

Filtering Data
• You can specify what data to display/update • Select records • Select fields

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

25

Sorting and Grouping Data
• You can order the data by any combination of fields • You can group data together by the contents of fields

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

26

Data Types
A field is a combination of one or more related characters and has a:

– Field name – Field size – Data type

Page 518 Figure 10-3

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

27

Common data types:

Page 518

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

28

Database Integrity = Data Quality
• Data integrity identifies the quality of the data • Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) points out the accuracy of a computer’s output depends on the accuracy of the input
C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Page 516 th e n cl ck D a ta i I te g ri n ty

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

29

Maintaining Data
• Validation compares data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct

C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Pages 522 - 524 th e n cl ck D a ta i V a l d a ti n i o

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

30

Data Dictionary or Repository
Contains data about:  each file/table/relatio n in the database  each field/attribute in those files

Pages 527 – 528 Figure 10-12

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

31

DBMS Tools
A DBMS provides tools that allow users and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the database

Page 528

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

32

Query Language
• Consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, or store • SQL is a popular example

Page 528

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

33

Structured Query Language (SQL)
SELECT (fields/attributes) FROM (tables/relations) WHERE (join requirement) ORDER BY(fields/attributes) •

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

34

Structured Query Language (SQL)
is a query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data

Page 534 Figure 10-21

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

35

Database Management Systems
Query by example (QBE) provides a GUI to assist users with retrieving data

Page 528

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

36

Report writers
Allow users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report

Page 531 Figure 10-16

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

37

Database Forms
• A form is a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database
C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Page 530 th e n cl ck E - Fo rm i b e l w C h a p te r 1 0 o 

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

38

Figure 10-15

Database Management Systems

Page 531

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

39

DBMS Backup and Restores
• A DMBS provides a variety of techniques to restore the database to a usable form in case it is damaged or destroyed

Pages 531 - 532

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

40

Backup and Recovery
• Backup (copy) the entire database regularly • Continuous backup copies each change • Logs can track changes made • Record before (before image) • Record after change (after image)

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

41

Recovery
Roll forward Use log to REENTER changes made since last save
 

R o ll b a ck w a rd U se l g to U N D O o ch a n g e s U se to re co ve ry p a rti l a, i co m p l te n e tra n sa cti n s o
42

Use to recover data loss

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

Web Databases
• Databases on the Web allow you to:

Page 536

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

43

Web Databases

Page 536 Figure 10-23

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

44

How a Photo Sharing Site Keeps Its Data

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

45

Database Administration
• It is important to have a carefully designed database

C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Page 537 th e n cl ck D a ta b a se i D e si n G u i e l n e s g d i 

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

46

Figure 10-24

Database Administration

C l ck to vi w W e b i e Li k , n cl ck C h a p te r 1 0 , C l ck i i W eb Li k fro m l ft n e n a vi a ti n , g o Page 538 th e n cl ck D a ta b a se i Adm i i n stra to rs b e l w o

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

47

Database Administration
• Employees should learn how to use the data in the database effectively
– Interact with database – Identify new data for the database – Maintain the database

Page 538 Figure 10-25

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

48

Summary

Page 539

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 10

49

Discovering Computers 2010
Living in a Digital World

C h a p te r 1 0 C o m p le te

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful