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BLOOD

William Harvey- father of physiology:


discovered that blood circulated through the
body in 1628.

Blood..a liquid tissue???

How are Tissue Classified ?(AGAIN)


Epithelial- lining or covering and glandular tissue.
Muscle- highly specialized to contract
Nervous- irritability and conductivity
Connective- Connects body parts; Must be living cells
surrounded by a matrix. Example: Bone (cells sitting in
lacunae in hardened matrix of calcium salts in Collagen
fibers)

Blood is considered to be a type

of connective tissue. Even


though it has a different
function in comparison to other
connective tissues it does have
an extracellular matrix.

The matrix is the plasma and


erythrocytes, leukocytes and
platelets are suspended in the
plasma.

Blood
The only fluid tissue in the
human body
Classified as a connective tissue
Living cells = formed elements
Non-living matrix = plasma

1. Appearance of Blood Samples during Recovery of WBCs


Whole blood in the collection
tube

Blood after centrifugation

WBCs and RBCs after plasma


removal

Top view of the WBCs (buffy


coat)

Top view of sample after WBC


removal

These are the Functions of Blood.


Can You Elaborate?
Transport-

Protection.

Regulation

Physical Characteristics of Blood


Color range
Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red
Oxygen-poor blood is dull red

pH must remain between 7.357.45


Blood temperature is slightly higher than
body temperature

Blood Plasma
Composed of approximately 90 percent water
Includes many dissolved substances

Nutrients
Salts (metal ions)
Respiratory gases
Hormones
Proteins
Waste products

Plasma Proteins
Albumin regulates osmotic pressure
Clotting proteins help to stem blood loss
when a blood vessel is injured
Antibodies help protect the body from
antigens

Formed Elements
Erythrocytes = red blood cells
Leukocytes = white blood cells
Platelets = cell fragments

Photomicrograph of a Blood Smear

Figure 10.2

Embryonic Stem Cells


Stem Cells- are undifferentiated cells and
remain that way for a long period of time. They
have ability to specialize into any type of tissue
thus have plasticity. They can be used to
generated any kind of tissue and have great
therapeutic potential.Embryonic Stems cellshave much greater degree of plasticity than
adult stems.

Blastocyst

5-6 day old embryo; about 120 cells big;


ES cells derived from its inner mass.
Embryonic Stem cells are Totipotent Their
differentiation abililty has no limits.

Hemopoiesis
Adult produces 400 billion platelets, 200 billion RBCs and
10 billion WBCs every day
Hemopoietic tissues produce blood cells
yolk sac produces stem cells
colonize fetal bone marrow, liver, spleen and thymus

liver stops producing blood cells at birth


spleen remains involved with WBC production
lymphoid hemopoiesis occurs in widely distributed lymphoid tissues
(thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen and peyers patches in intestines)

red bone marrow


pluripotent stem cells
myeloid hemopoiesis produces RBCs, WBCs and platelets

Hematopoiesis

Occurs in red bone marrow from


All blood cells are derived from a common
stem cell (hemocytoblast) Pleuripotent
Hemocytoblast differentiation
Lymphoid stem cell produces lymphocytes
Myeloid stem cell produces other formed
elements

Adult Stem Cell (example:


Hematopeoetic Stem Cell

All of These Blood Cells From One


Hematoblast Stem Cell!

Leukocyte Terms
Leukocytosis- A rise in production of WBC
count, usually due to response to infection.
Leukopenia- Abnormally Low WBC count

Leukemia-.bone marrow becomes cancerous.


WBCs abnormally high.

Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)


Crucial in the bodys defense against disease
These are complete cells, with a nucleus and
organelles
Able to move into and out of blood vessels
(diapedesis)
Can move by ameboid motion
Can respond to chemicals released by damaged
tissues

Types of Leukocytes
Granulocytes
Granules in their
cytoplasm can be
stained
Include neutrophils,
eosinophils, and
basophils
Figure 10.4

Eosinophiles
Function: Phagocytosis of
antigen-antibody
complexes; allergens
Release enzymes to weaken
or destroy parasites such as
worms.
Appearance: Nuceus has 2
large lobes

Basophil
Appearance:

Function: Secretes
Histamine,( a
vasodilator)
Secretes heparin ( an
anticoagulant)

Neutrophils
Appearance
Nucleus usually with 35 lobes in S-C shaped
array
Functions:
Phagocytosis of bacteria
Release of antimicrobial
chemicals

Agranulocytes
Lymphocytes
Nucleus fills most of the cell
Play an important role in the immune response

Monocytes
Largest of the white blood cells
Function as macrophages
Important in fighting chronic infection

Lymphocytes
These are cells involved in the..
IMMUNE RESPONSE
There are: B-Lymphocytes
and
T-Lymphocytes

Monocytes
Largest of the WBCs
They resemble lymphocytes
however they contain much
more cytoplasm.
They are macrophages.

Order of Leukocyte Abundance?


Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes,
Epsonophils, Basophils

Granulocyte Functions
Neutrophils ( in bacterial infections)
phagocytosis of bacteria
release antimicrobial chemicals

Eosinophils ( in parasitic infections or


allergies)
phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes,
allergens and inflammatory chemicals
release enzymes to destroy parasites

Basophils ( in chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes)


secrete histamine (vasodilator)
secrete heparin (anticoagulant)

Red Blood Cells: Erythrocytes


FUNCTION: Carry Oxygen to all cells in
body.
So specialized for this function that they lose
their nucleus when mature and lose other
organelles
RBCs carry oxygen as Oxyhemoglobin; 1
molecule of hemoglobin binds to 4 molecules
of oxygen.

About Red Blood Cells


The main function is to carry oxygen
Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes
Biconcave disks
Essentially bags of hemoglobin
Anucleate (no nucleus)
Contain very few organelles
Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1

Hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein
Binds strongly, but reversibly, to
oxygen
Each hemoglobin molecule has four
oxygen binding sites
Each erythrocyte has 250 million
hemoglobin molecules

Hemoglobin

The binding and releasing of oxygen by


hemoglobin

Your RBC Count is low: ANEMIA?


Hemoglobin, that pigment that carries
oxygen, is a molecule made up of
various elementsin the middle is
FeIRON.
So when your iron level is
insufficient.so is your RBC level
Symptoms of ANEMIA: Tired, listless,
lack of energy.

Control of Erythrocyte Production


Rate is controlled by a hormone
(erythropoietin)
Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a
response to reduced oxygen levels in the
blood
Homeostasis is maintained by negative
feedback from blood oxygen levels

Control of Erythrocyte
Production: Homeostasis

Figure 10.5

Fate of Erythrocytes
Unable to divide, grow, or
synthesize proteins
Wear out in 100 to 120 days
When worn out, are eliminated by
phagocytes in the spleen or liver
Lost cells are replaced by division
of hemocytoblasts

Life Cycle of a Red Blood Cell

Stop

Destruction of RBCs
Macrophages phagocytize and destroy damaged
RBCs primarily in the liver and the spleen.
Subunits are HEME, the iron-containing portion
and globin, the protein.
The hemo further decomposes into biliverdin which
decomposes into bilirubin (orange)---excreted in
Bile.
Fe returns to hematopoietic tissue for reuse.

Sickle Cell Anemia


A genetic disease in which a
SUBSTITUTION mutation exits.

SUBSTITUTION MUTATION

Different Amino Acid Results in


Different Blood Protein Structure
Valine instead of Glutamine

Hematocrit
When analyzing blood the 3 most important measurements
are RBC count, hemoglobin concentration and Hematocrit.
Hematocrit stands for total blood volume.
Usually 4.6 -6.2 million RBCs / uL in men
4.2 -5.2 million RBCs / uL in women
Why the difference?

Dietary Factors for RBC production

Folic acid and Vitamin B-12


necessary for RBC production
Iron is also require, but in small
quantities; this is because the Fe
in hemoglobin is recycled;

Going to the Mountains Today?

Maybe you should stop on the way up.


Why?
High altitudeslower air pressure..less
oxygen.
LOW O2- is the stimulus for kidneys
( and liver) to release erythropoietin
which stimulates marrow to produce
RBCs.

Leukocyte Levels in the Blood


Normal levels are between 4,000 and 11,000 cells per
millimeter
Abnormal leukocyte levels
Leukocytosis
Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml
Generally indicates an infection
Leukopenia
Abnormally low leukocyte level
Commonly caused by certain drugs

What is Hemostasis?
This is the stoppage of bleeding
Important when blood vessels are damaged
to prevent excessive blood loss.
Hemostasis includes: blood vessel spasm,
platelet plug formation and blood
coagulation(Formation of a clot)

Platelets (Thrombocytes)
Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells
(megakaryocytes)
Needed for the clotting process
Normal platelet count = 300,000/mm3

SO..What is the ROLE OF A PLATELET


in Hemostasis?
Platelets are sticky.They stick to any rough
surface and to collagen in connective tissue.They
also stick to each other.
When a blood vessel breaks they adhere to collagen
underneath endothelial lining.
Platelets stick to each other-Plug
Platelets then release SEROTONIN contracts
smooth muscle which helps reduce further blood
loss.

Blood Coagulation: Clotting


This is a POSITIVE FEEDBACK mechanism
(homeostasis).
The major event is the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen
is converted into fibrin fiber threads which clot.
A long series of events take place resulting in this final
event. The initiator is prothrombin which is released
which a damaged tissued releases tissue thromboplastin.
Prothrombin will cleave to form thrombin.
Both Ca ions and phospholipids must also be present.

Undesirable Clotting
Thrombus
A clot in an unbroken blood vessel
Can be deadly in areas like the heart

Embolus
A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in
the bloodstream
Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the
brain

Human Blood Groups

There are over 30 common red


blood cell antigens
The most vigorous transfusion
reactions are caused by ABO
and Rh blood group antigens

ABO Blood Groups


The presence of both A and B is
called type AB
The presence of either A or B is
called types A and B,
respectively

ABO Blood Groups


Based on the presence or absence
of two antigens
Type A
Type B
The lack of these antigens is called
type O

Agglutination of Erythrocytes

ABO Blood Typing

Antigens and Antibodies


Antigens
unique molecules on cell surface
used to distinguish self from foreign
foreign antigens generate immune response

Antibodies
secreted by plasma cells
as part of immune response to foreign matter

Agglutination
antibody molecule binding to antigens
causes clumping

ABO
Group
Your ABO blood type is determined by presence
or absence of antigens (agglutinogens) on RBCs

type A person has A antigens


type B person has B antigens
type AB has both antigens
type O has neither antigen
most common - type O
rarest - type AB

Rh
Group
Rh (D) agglutinogens discovered in rhesus
monkey in 1940
Rh+ blood type has D agglutinogens on RBCs
Rh frequencies vary among ethnic groups

Anti-D agglutinins not normally present


form in Rh- individuals exposed to Rh+ blood
Rh- woman with an Rh+ fetus or transfusion of Rh+ blood
no problems with first transfusion or pregnancy

RH Factor

Hemolytic Disease of Newborn


Fig. 18.16

Rh antibodies attack fetal blood


causing severe anemia and toxic brain syndrome