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Cellular Respiration

Ch 7 pp.145-155
Energy From Electrons
 Atom nucleus
 Positive
 Attracts/pulls electrons
 Potential energy released when nucleus pulls electrons to it (makes bond)
 Think of the atomic structure of the following atoms
 Oxygen (make up the oxygen molecule in cell resp)
 Hydrogen and Carbon (bonded to each other in glucose)
 Which has a stronger attraction for electrons?
 What happens in cell respiration?
 Oxygen molecule reacts with glucose
 Carbon and hydrogen leave each other and become bonded to oxygen's,
creating the carbon dioxide and water produced in cellular respiration
 The electrons in hydrogen and carbon are pulled toward the nucleus of the
oxygen atoms, thus releasing potential energy
 Occurs when you burn sugar, lots of energy released almost
 In cellular respiration, occurs in controlled steps to prevent a massive
release of energy
Electron Transport Chain (etc)
 Cell respiration releases E in small amounts in the form of
ATP molecules
 Several steps
 Oxygen is only involved in the end
 Electrons=energy
 Electrons are carried by electron carrier molecules
 Electron carrier is a molecule that can accept a pair of high-E electrons
and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule
 Oxygen is the final electron acceptor that joins with
hydrogen ions to make water
 This transfer of electrons throughout cellular respiration is
called the electron transport chain (ETC)
 For every transfer of electrons between molecules in the
chain, a little E is released
Cellular Respiration
 A cellular process (part of metabolism)
 Metabolism
 Set of chem. rxns through which an organism
builds up or breaks down materials as it carries
out life’s processes
 C6H12 O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)
 Glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide and water
 Aerobic
Cellular Respiration: 3 parts
1. Glycolysis
 cytoplasm
1. Kreb’s Cycle
 Mitochondrian
1. Electron Transport
 Within the inner

Electrons carried in NADH

carried in
NADH and
Glucose FADH2 Electron
Krebs Transport
Cycle Chain

Cellular Respiration

(C6H12 06) Electron
Krebs (CO2)
+ Glycolysis Transport
Cycle +
Oxygen Chain
 Greek word “glukus” sweet
 Latin word “lysis” loosening or decomposing
 Def: the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half,
producing two molecules of pyruvic acid (a three-carbon compound)
 Takes place outside mitochondria, in cytoplasm of cell
 Energy releasing process
 Does NOT require oxygen
 Requires an investment of 2 ATP molecules at beginning to get it going
 These 2 atp’s are like an investment that pays back with interest
 In order to earn money from a bank, you have to put $$ in
 4 molecules of ATP produced at the end of Glycolysis
 What is the “net” gain?
 2 ATPs
NADH production
 4 high-E e- are removed and passed to two
electron carriers called NAD+ (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide) (each NAD+ carries 2 e-)
 Each NAD+ molecule accepts a pair of high-E
 Once e- are accepted, NAD+ becomes NADH,
which will transfer e- to other molecules
 NAD+ helps pass energy from glucose to other
pathways in the cell
 Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, receives 2 phosphates from the first 2
ATPs invested in Glycolysis
 Glucose now becomes fructose 1,6-biphosphate (highly energized)
 Fructose 1,6-biphosphate splits to become two molecules of CCC-P
(glyceraldehyde 3-P)
 Each of these molecules transfers electrons and hydrogen ions to
NAD+ molecules that come in
 Accepting two e- and hydrogen ion changes NAD+ to NADH, which
carry electrons to the next part of Glycolysis
 An inorganic phosphate is added to the CCC-P molecule changing it
to P-CCC-P (1,3-biphosphoglycerate)
 2 ADP molecules will come in and snatch off the phosphates from P-
CCC-P and the molecule has now become PYRUVATE or PYRUVIC
 Pyruvate is then sent on to the next phase, the Kreb’s Cycle
Reactants and Products of
 In
 1 glucose
 2 ATP
 2 NAD+
 Out
 2 NADH (to ETC)
 4 ATP
 2 Pyruvates (to Kreb’s cycle)
 (Net ATPs 2)
Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid

To the electron
transport chain