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Cellular Respiration

Ch 7 pp.145-155
Energy From Electrons
 Atom nucleus
 Positive
 Attracts/pulls electrons
 Potential energy released when nucleus pulls electrons to it (makes bond)
 Think of the atomic structure of the following atoms
 Oxygen (make up the oxygen molecule in cell resp)
 Hydrogen and Carbon (bonded to each other in glucose)
 Which has a stronger attraction for electrons?
 What happens in cell respiration?
 Oxygen molecule reacts with glucose
 Carbon and hydrogen leave each other and become bonded to oxygen's,
creating the carbon dioxide and water produced in cellular respiration
 The electrons in hydrogen and carbon are pulled toward the nucleus of the
oxygen atoms, thus releasing potential energy
 Occurs when you burn sugar, lots of energy released almost
instantaneously
 In cellular respiration, occurs in controlled steps to prevent a massive
release of energy
Electron Transport Chain (etc)
 Cell respiration releases E in small amounts in the form of
ATP molecules
 Several steps
 Oxygen is only involved in the end
 Electrons=energy
 Electrons are carried by electron carrier molecules
 Electron carrier is a molecule that can accept a pair of high-E electrons
and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule
 Oxygen is the final electron acceptor that joins with
hydrogen ions to make water
 This transfer of electrons throughout cellular respiration is
called the electron transport chain (ETC)
 For every transfer of electrons between molecules in the
chain, a little E is released
Cellular Respiration
 A cellular process (part of metabolism)
 Metabolism
 Set of chem. rxns through which an organism
builds up or breaks down materials as it carries
out life’s processes
 C6H12 O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)
 Glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide and water
 REQUIRES OXYGEN
 Aerobic
Cellular Respiration: 3 parts
1. Glycolysis
 cytoplasm
1. Kreb’s Cycle
 Mitochondrian
matrix
1. Electron Transport
Chain
 Within the inner
mitochondrial
membran
Mitochondrion

Electrons carried in NADH

Electrons
Pyruvic
carried in
acid
NADH and
Glucose FADH2 Electron
Krebs Transport
Glycolysis
Cycle Chain

Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
Cellular Respiration

Carbon
Glucose
Dioxide
(C6H12 06) Electron
Krebs (CO2)
+ Glycolysis Transport
Cycle +
Oxygen Chain
Water
(02)
(H2O)
Glycolysis
 Greek word “glukus” sweet
 Latin word “lysis” loosening or decomposing
 Def: the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half,
producing two molecules of pyruvic acid (a three-carbon compound)
 Takes place outside mitochondria, in cytoplasm of cell
 Energy releasing process
 Does NOT require oxygen
 Requires an investment of 2 ATP molecules at beginning to get it going
 These 2 atp’s are like an investment that pays back with interest
 In order to earn money from a bank, you have to put $$ in
 4 molecules of ATP produced at the end of Glycolysis
 What is the “net” gain?
 2 ATPs
NADH production
 4 high-E e- are removed and passed to two
electron carriers called NAD+ (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide) (each NAD+ carries 2 e-)
 Each NAD+ molecule accepts a pair of high-E
e-
 Once e- are accepted, NAD+ becomes NADH,
which will transfer e- to other molecules
 NAD+ helps pass energy from glucose to other
pathways in the cell
Glycolysis
 Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, receives 2 phosphates from the first 2
ATPs invested in Glycolysis
 Glucose now becomes fructose 1,6-biphosphate (highly energized)
 Fructose 1,6-biphosphate splits to become two molecules of CCC-P
(glyceraldehyde 3-P)
 Each of these molecules transfers electrons and hydrogen ions to
NAD+ molecules that come in
 Accepting two e- and hydrogen ion changes NAD+ to NADH, which
carry electrons to the next part of Glycolysis
 An inorganic phosphate is added to the CCC-P molecule changing it
to P-CCC-P (1,3-biphosphoglycerate)
 2 ADP molecules will come in and snatch off the phosphates from P-
CCC-P and the molecule has now become PYRUVATE or PYRUVIC
ACID
 Pyruvate is then sent on to the next phase, the Kreb’s Cycle
Reactants and Products of
Glycolysis
 In
 1 glucose
 2 ATP
 2 NAD+
 Out
 2 NADH (to ETC)
 4 ATP
 2 Pyruvates (to Kreb’s cycle)
 (Net ATPs 2)
Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid

To the electron
transport chain