You are on page 1of 19

CLIL Content and

Language Integrated
Learning

19/06/15

CLIL/CBI: ORIGINS AND DEFINITIONS

Associated with the genesis of language immersion education


in Canada (1965)

the target language as the vehicle through which subject


matter content is learned rather than as the immediate
object of study (Brinton et al., 1989: 5)

the development of use-oriented second and foreign


language skills (Wesche, 1993)

Any educational situation in which an additional language


and therefore not the most widely used language of the
environment is used for the teaching and learning of subjects
other than the language itself (Marsh & Lang, 2000)

19/06/15

What qualifies as content in CLIL?

curriculum concepts being taught through the foreign


language ... appropriate to the grade level of the
students (Curtain and Pesola, 1994: 35)

content need not be academic; it can include any topic,


theme, or non-language issue of interest or importance
to the learner (Genesee, 1994: 3)

...what we teach in any kind of content-based course is


not the content itself but some form of the discourse of
that content (Eskey, 1997: 139-140)

19/06/15

Support from SLA research (I)

Natural language acquisition occurs in context. Natural language is never


learned divorced from meaning, and CLIL provides a context for meaningful
communication to occur (Curtain, 1995).

CLIL promotes negotiation of meaning, which is known to enhance language


acquisition (Lightbown and Spada, 1993). Language acquisition takes place
through conversational interaction (Long, 1983).

Second language acquisition is enhanced by comprehensible input (Krashen,


1985), which is a key pedagogical technique in CLIL.

However, comprehensible input alone does not suffice _ students need an


explicit focus on relevant and contextually appropriate language forms to
support content learning (Lyster, 1987; Met, 1991)

19/06/15

Support from SLA research (II)

Cummins (1981) notion of CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)


as contrasted with BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) shows
that students need to be learning content while they are developing CALP.

CLIL provides opportunities for Vygotskian-based concepts that contribute to


SLA: negotiation in the Zone of Proximal Development, the use of private
speech (for problem solving) and student appropriation of learning tasks.

Language learning becomes more concrete rather than abstract (as in


traditional language instruction).

More complex language is best taught within a framework that focuses on


authentic content.

19/06/15

Support from research on Instructional Strategies

CLIL lends itself to cooperative learning (which has been shown to


improve learning; Slavin, 1995).

CLIL allows the incorporation of thinking skills and learning strategies


that lead to rich language development:
Information

gathering skills (questioning)


organising skills (categorising, comparing)
analysing skills (identifying main ideas, attributes, relationship
patterns)
generating skills (inferring, predicting, etc...)

Research on extensive reading in a second language shows that


reading coherent materials leads to improved language abilities,
greater content-area learning and higher motivation (Elley, 1991)

19/06/15

Support from Educational and Cognitive


Psychology (I)
Anderson

(1993) has proposed a cognitive learning theory for


instruction that integrates attention to content and language: skills
(including language) and content follow a sequence of stages of
learning:
COGNITIVE

ASSOCIATIVE

AUTONOMOUS

The presentation of coherent and meaningful information leads


to deeper processing, which results in better learning (Anderson,
1990)

Information that has a good number of connections to related


information promotes better learning (Anderson, 1990)

19/06/15

Support from Educational and Cognitive


Psychology (II)

Facts and skills taught in isolation need much more practice


and rehearsal before they can be internalised or put into long
term memory.

CLIL develops a wider range of discourse skills than does


traditional language instruction (because of the incorporation
of higher cognitive skills)

CLIL provides for cognitive engagement (tasks that are


intrinsically interesting will lead to better opportunities for
SLA)

CLIL emphasises a connection to real life and real world skills


(Curtain, 1995)

19/06/15

CLIL benefits for content learning

Learners are more successful and more motivated than those in


traditional content subject classrooms (Wolff, 2004)

Learners look at content from a different and broader perspective


when it is taught in another language (Multi-perspectivity) (Wolff,
2004)

Learners develop more accurate academic concepts when another


language is involved (Lamsfuss-Schenk, 2002)

In CLIL content subject related intercultural learning takes place


(Christ, 2000)

19/06/15

CLIL METHODOLOGY IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS


(Grenfell, 2002)
1.Enhance student involvement
Negotiation of topics and tasks
Using particular cases before moving on to general topics
Project work
Role-reversal in project presentations

2.Facilitate comprehension
Texts written for older children and adolescents
Comprehension tasks
Brief teacher explanations
Paralinguistic together with linguistic strategies

19/06/15

10

CLIL METHODOLOGY IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS


(Grenfell, 2002)
3.Promote student-student interaction

Benefits of pair and small group-work (Long and Porter, 1965; Pica,
1987, etc...)
Negotiation of meaning
input comprehesibility
Student/Student interaction
use of exploratory language

Proficient peers can help less proficient ones


Students need training in production and reception strategies
(marking lack of understanding, asking for clarification, repeating,
stressing a problematic word, paraphrasing)

19/06/15

11

CLIL METHODOLOGY IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS


(Grenfell, 2002)
4. Work on academic skills and strategies characteristic of
the subject matter

Interpretation of visuals

Use of flowcharts and time lines to organise information

Cause and effect relationships

19/06/15

12

CLIL METHODOLOGY IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS


(Grenfell, 2002)

5.

Work on communication skills for academic purposes

Selecting content in oral presentations


Clear delivery
Fluency
Ability to attract the audience

6. Access to information and communication technologies

19/06/15

13

CLIL METHODOLOGY IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS


(Grenfell, 2002)
7. Accept code-switching as a normal feature of CLIL
classroom
Advantages of L1 use in problem-solving (Guasch, 1999)
Give priority to communication and understanding
Tasks to encourage use of L2, such as tape-recording the
students
8. Joint assessment of content and communication skills
Awareness of learners linguistic limitations
Testing of simple facts can be done with multiple choice
questions written with the help of students

19/06/15

14

CLIL EXPERIENCES IN SPAIN: SECOND


LANGUAGES

1980s: Different types of immersion programmes in the


Basque country, Catalonia and Galicia.

Total competence in both official languages in the long


term.

Instrumental methodological approach (Serra, 1997)


using the regional language as the medium of instruction of
content (CLIL).

19/06/15

15

CLIL EXPERIENCES IN SPAIN: FOREIGN


LANGUAGES

Spain becomes member of the EC (1986)


Students have to be competent in one ore more foreign
languages, in addition to Spanish and, in some cases, their
regional language (Multilingualism).

Variety in the use of CLIL in foreign language teaching, due to


progressive decentralisation.

Bilingual and Bicultural Project (1996) with MECD and British Council.

19/06/15

16

FL CLIL EXPERIENCES IN SPAIN: TEACHERS


PROBLEMS:
Primary school teachers: global understanding of different subjects, good base in
didactics; however, some may not have enough communicative competence to
teach content in the L2.

Secondary school teachers: importance of academic knowledge, not much training


in educational methodology, specialists in one subject; some may not have enugh
communicative competence to teach in the L2.

Less training in strategic and linguistic needs for specific content areas.

19/06/15

17

FL CLIL EXPERIENCES IN SPAIN: TEACHERS

The CLIL projects in Spain have been based on teachers


availability/willingness to keep trying.

SOME SOLUTIONS:
Education authorities should guarantee training in CLIL for
content and language teachers.
Teacher training should ensure command of L2.
Education
authorities should recognise
officially
double
qualifications (content and language).
Coordination between FL department and each of the contentsubject areas or departments.
Materials design

19/06/15

18

CLIL EXPERIENCES IN SPAIN: RESULTS

CLIL programmes have an effect on the overall linguistic


competence of the children (Serra, 1997; Cenoz & Perales, 2001).

At the pre-school level, CLIL seems to promote the learners oral


functional production in the L2 (Llinares, 2004).

Students in CLIL programmes seem to perform better on national


achievement tests in L1, L2 and other subjects (Sanz, 2000).

Use of CLIL in other languages fosters understanding in that


culture and European citizenship.

19/06/15

19