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You are on page 1of 43

Section I:

Lateral Earth Pressure

Priyantha Jayawickrama,

Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Outline:

Rankines theory for active and passive earth

pressures

Coulombs theory for active and passive

earth pressures

'h

Ko

'o

Where

o = z

h = Ko(z)

Note:

Kofor most soils ranges between 0.5 and 1.0

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

K0 = 1 sin

(Jaky, 1944)

PI (%)

K o 0.44 0.42

100

(Massarch, 1979)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

K o (OC ) K o ( NC ) OCR

Where

Pc

OCR

'o

pc is pre-consolidation pressure

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

shown below

1

P0 k 0H 2

2

Partially submerged soil

effective stress & pore water pressure

components

k 0z

'

h

z H1:

- No pore water pressure component

since water table is below z

z H 1:

k0 {H1 ' ( z H1 )}

'

h

u w ( z H1 )

- Variation of h with depth is shown by CEGB

- Variation of U with depth is shown by IJK

Total Lateral pressure is

h u

'

h

A' L A

'

a

o'

'a

'

z

A

B

'L

B'

Frictionless wall

Before the wall move the, stress

condition is given by circle a

State of Plastic equilibrium represented

by circle b. This is the Rankines active

state

Rankines active earth pressure is given

CE

Design of Earth Retaining Structures

a'

by5331-013:

(Cont.)

1 sin

cos

2c '

1 sin

1 sin

'

a

'

o

'

2

(Cont.)

Rankines Active Pressure Coefficient, Ka

given by:

'

2

K a ' tan 45 2

o

planes and major principal plane

(horizontal) is: 45

(Cont.)

The variation of a

with depth:

'

L

A

'

p

o'

Frictionless wall

Circle a gives initial state stress

condition

Rankines passive state is represented

by circle b

Rankines passive earth pressure is given

'

CE 5331-013:

by p Design of Earth Retaining Structures

(Cont.)

1 sin

cos

2c'

1 sin

1 sin

'

p

'

o

z tan

'

p

45 2c' tan 45

'

2

(Cont.)

Rankines Passive Pressure Coefficient Kp

p

given by:

Kp

'

o

tan 45

planes and major principal plane

(horizontal) is:

45

(Cont.)

The variation of

with depth:

'

p

Against Retaining Walls

considered:

Horizontal backfill

Sloping backfill

Cohesionless soil

Partially submerged cohesionless soil with

surcharge

Cohesive soil

Cohesionless soil

Cohesive soil

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil

1. Active Case

a k az

1

pa k aH 2

2

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil

2. Passive Case

p k pz

1

p p k pH 2

2

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil

1. Active

Case

a' k a {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil

1. Passive Case

'p k p {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

1. Active Case

a k az 2c ' k a

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

'

(depth of tension crack) is

2c

z0

ka

and c=cu . Therefore,

2cu

z0

Tensile crack is taken into account when finding the total active force.

I.e., consider only the pressure distribution below the crack

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

'2

1

2

c

Pa k aH 2 2 k a c ' H

2

2

2

c

1

Pa H 2 2cu H u

2

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

2. Passive Case

Pressure

1

Pp k pH 2 2 k p c ' H

2

Passive force

p k pz 2c ' k p

Passive force when = 0

Pp

1

H 2 2cu H

2

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil

Earth pressure acts an angle of to

the horizontal

1. Active case (c=0)

a' k az

1

k aH 2

2

This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal

pa

K a cos

cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.2 in page 359 gives ka values for various combinations of and )

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil

2. Passive case (c=0)

'p k pz

1

p p k pH 2

2

This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal

K p cos

cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.3 in page 360 gives kp values for various combinations of and )

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Sloping backfill, cohesive soil

1. Active case

ka

k

cos

"

a

z0

1 sin '

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Sloping backfill, cohesive soil

2. Passive case

k

"

p

kp

cos

c'

1

2

cos ' sin '

k ,k

* 2 cos 2

cos 2 '

"

a

"

p

c'

c'

cos 2 '8

cos 2 sin ' cos '

4 cos cos cos ' 4

z

z

2

"

p

with ,

c'

z

and )

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

Rough retaining walls with granular backfill. Angle of friction between the

wall and the backfill is

1. Active case

Case 1: Positive wall friction in the active case (+)

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

Wall AB

AB

causes a downward motion of soil relative to

wall. Causes downward shear on the wall (fig. b)

retaining wall

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

Case 2: Negative wall friction in the active case (-)

- Wall is forced to a downward motion relative to the backfill

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

2. Passive case

Case 1: Positive wall friction in the passive case (+)

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

Wall AB

AB

causes a upward motion of soil relative to wall.

Causes upward shear on the wall (fig. e)

retaining wall

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)

Friction walls

Case 2: Negative wall friction in the passive case (-)

- The wall is forced to a upward motion relative to the backfill

into account

Active case

(Cont.)

of the shear and normal force on the surface of failure BC; P a

active force per unit length

From the law of sines,

W

Pa

(Cont.)

Pa

or

Pa

sin '

W

sin 90 ' '

1

cos cos sin '

H 2

2

cos

sin

sin

90

'

'

determine the critical value of for maximum Pa

dPa

0

d

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

To

(Cont.)

After solving

1

pa k aH 2

2

ka

cos 2 ( ' )

1 sin '

ka

1 sin '

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

pressure coefficient

(Cont.)

The variation of ka for retaining walls with vertical back (=0) and

horizontal backfill (=0) is given in table 11.5 in page 367

Tables 11.6 (pages 368 & 369) and 11.7 (pages 370 & 371) give

the values of ka for = and = /2 respectively (useful in

retaining wall design)

(Cont.)

Passive case

(Cont.)

1

p p k pH 2

2

kp

cos 2 ( ' )

sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )

cos cos ' 1

cos(

'

)

cos(

1 sin '

kp

1 sin '

pressure coefficient

Table 11.8 in page 373 gives variation of kp with and (for =0 & =0)

CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

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