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# Texas Tech University

## Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Section I:
Lateral Earth Pressure
Priyantha Jayawickrama,
Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Outline:

## Earth pressure at rest

Rankines theory for active and passive earth
pressures
Coulombs theory for active and passive
earth pressures

## Coefficient of earth pressure at rest, Ko

'h
Ko
'o

Where
o = z
h = Ko(z)

Note:
Kofor most soils ranges between 0.5 and 1.0
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

K0 = 1 sin

(Jaky, 1944)

## For fine-grained, normally consolidated soils

PI (%)
K o 0.44 0.42

100

(Massarch, 1979)
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## For overconsolidated clays

K o (OC ) K o ( NC ) OCR
Where

Pc
OCR
'o

pc is pre-consolidation pressure
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

shown below

1
P0 k 0H 2
2

## Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

Partially submerged soil

## Pressure on the wall can be found from

effective stress & pore water pressure
components

k 0z
'
h

z H1:

## shown by triangle ACE

- No pore water pressure component
since water table is below z

## Earth Pressure at Rest (Cont.)

z H 1:

k0 {H1 ' ( z H1 )}
'
h

## Lateral pressure from water

u w ( z H1 )
- Variation of h with depth is shown by CEGB
- Variation of U with depth is shown by IJK
Total Lateral pressure is

h u

'
h

## Rankines Active Earth Pressure

A' L A

'
a

o'

'a

'

z
A
B
'L

B'

Frictionless wall
Before the wall move the, stress
condition is given by circle a
State of Plastic equilibrium represented
by circle b. This is the Rankines active
state
Rankines active earth pressure is given
CE
Design of Earth Retaining Structures
a'
by5331-013:

(Cont.)

1 sin
cos

2c '
1 sin
1 sin
'
a

'
o

'

2

## Rankines Active Earth Pressure

(Cont.)
Rankines Active Pressure Coefficient, Ka

given by:
'

2
K a ' tan 45 2
o

## The angle between the failure planes /slip

planes and major principal plane
(horizontal) is: 45

## Rankines Active Earth Pressure

(Cont.)

The variation of a
with depth:
'

## Rankines Passive Earth Pressure

L
A

'
p

o'

Frictionless wall
Circle a gives initial state stress
condition
Rankines passive state is represented
by circle b
Rankines passive earth pressure is given
'
CE 5331-013:
by p Design of Earth Retaining Structures

(Cont.)

1 sin
cos

2c'
1 sin
1 sin
'
p

'
o

z tan
'
p

45 2c' tan 45

'

2

## Rankines Passive Earth Pressure

(Cont.)
Rankines Passive Pressure Coefficient Kp

p
given by:

Kp

'
o

tan 45

## The angle between the failure planes /slip

planes and major principal plane
(horizontal) is:

45

(Cont.)

The variation of
with depth:

'
p

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls

## There are three different cases

considered:

Horizontal backfill

Sloping backfill

Cohesionless soil
Partially submerged cohesionless soil with
surcharge
Cohesive soil
Cohesionless soil
Cohesive soil

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil

1. Active Case

a k az

1
pa k aH 2
2

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless soil
2. Passive Case

p k pz
1
p p k pH 2
2

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil
1. Active

Case

a' k a {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesionless, partially submerged soil
1. Passive Case

'p k p {q H 1 ' ( z H1 )}
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil
1. Active Case

a k az 2c ' k a

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

## The depth at which the active pressure becomes equal to zero

'
(depth of tension crack) is

2c
z0
ka

## For the undrained condition, = 0, then ka becomes 1 (tan245 = 1)

and c=cu . Therefore,

2cu
z0

Tensile crack is taken into account when finding the total active force.
I.e., consider only the pressure distribution below the crack
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil

## Active total pressure force will be

'2
1
2
c
Pa k aH 2 2 k a c ' H
2

2
2
c
1
Pa H 2 2cu H u
2

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Horizontal backfill with Cohesive soil
2. Passive Case

Pressure

1
Pp k pH 2 2 k p c ' H
2
Passive force

p k pz 2c ' k p
Passive force when = 0

Pp

1
H 2 2cu H
2

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil
Earth pressure acts an angle of to
the horizontal
1. Active case (c=0)

a' k az

1
k aH 2
2
This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal
pa

K a cos

## cos cos 2 cos 2

cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.2 in page 359 gives ka values for various combinations of and )
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesionless soil
2. Passive case (c=0)

'p k pz
1
p p k pH 2
2
This force acts H/3 from bottom and inclines to the horizontal

K p cos

## cos cos 2 cos 2

cos cos 2 cos 2

(Table 11.3 in page 360 gives kp values for various combinations of and )
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesive soil
1. Active case

ka
k
cos
"
a

## 2c ' 1 sin '

z0
1 sin '
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Sloping backfill, cohesive soil
2. Passive case

## 'p zk p zk "p cos

k
"
p

kp
cos

c'
1

2
cos ' sin '
k ,k
* 2 cos 2
cos 2 '

"
a

"
p

c'
c'
cos 2 '8
cos 2 sin ' cos '
4 cos cos cos ' 4

z
z
2

"
p

with ,

c'
z

and )

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Rough retaining walls with granular backfill. Angle of friction between the
wall and the backfill is

1. Active case
Case 1: Positive wall friction in the active case (+)

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls

## Downward motion of soil

Wall AB
AB
causes a downward motion of soil relative to
wall. Causes downward shear on the wall (fig. b)

retaining wall

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Case 2: Negative wall friction in the active case (-)
- Wall is forced to a downward motion relative to the backfill

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
2. Passive case
Case 1: Positive wall friction in the passive case (+)

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls

## Downward motion of wall

Wall AB
AB
causes a upward motion of soil relative to wall.
Causes upward shear on the wall (fig. e)

retaining wall

## Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution

Against Retaining Walls (Cont.)
Friction walls
Case 2: Negative wall friction in the passive case (-)
- The wall is forced to a upward motion relative to the backfill

into account
Active case

(Cont.)

## Forces acting: W - effective weight of the soil wedge; F resultant

of the shear and normal force on the surface of failure BC; P a
active force per unit length

## The force triangle for wedge is shown in figure b

From the law of sines,

W
Pa

(Cont.)
Pa
or

Pa

sin '
W
sin 90 ' '

1
cos cos sin '
H 2

2
cos

sin

sin
90

'

'

## , H, , , , and are constants and is the only variable.

determine the critical value of for maximum Pa

dPa
0
d
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

To

(Cont.)
After solving

1
pa k aH 2
2

ka

cos 2 ( ' )

## Note: =0, =0, =0 then

1 sin '
ka
1 sin '
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures

## Same as Rankines earth

pressure coefficient

## Coulombs Earth Pressure Theory

(Cont.)
The variation of ka for retaining walls with vertical back (=0) and
horizontal backfill (=0) is given in table 11.5 in page 367

Tables 11.6 (pages 368 & 369) and 11.7 (pages 370 & 371) give
the values of ka for = and = /2 respectively (useful in
retaining wall design)

(Cont.)

Passive case

(Cont.)

1
p p k pH 2
2

## Kp Coulombs passive earth pressure coefficient and given by

kp

cos 2 ( ' )
sin( ' ' ) sin( ' )
cos cos ' 1

cos(

'

)
cos(

1 sin '
kp
1 sin '

## Same as Rankines earth

pressure coefficient

Table 11.8 in page 373 gives variation of kp with and (for =0 & =0)
CE 5331-013: Design of Earth Retaining Structures