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ROCKS MECHANICS

STABILISASI LERENG

CONTENT :
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Rock Bolting
Rip Rap
BIO ENGINEERING
Case Study Shoreline Stabilization

I. Rock Bolting

minovainternational.com

pacificblasting.com

A method of reinforcing a rock formation


with rock bolts

integritytesting.com.au

Fugure of Bolt

Block building using rock bolts (after Jack Parker).

http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/09/flexible-roof-support-systems.html

Photoelastic model of bolt strengthening (after Lou Panek).


http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/09/flexible-roof-support-systems.html

Wires used to reinforce sprayed on concrete (shotcrete).


http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/09/flexible-roof-support-systems.html

Applying shotcrete with the operator


well back from the face (Evert Hoek)

Drains in a shotcrete wall. (Evert Hoek)

http://bittooth.blogspot.com/2010/09/flexible-roof-support-systems.html

moretrench.com

II. Rip Rap

Riprap also known as rip rap, rubble, shot rock or rock armour or "Rip-rap" is rock
or other material used to armor shorelines, streambeds, bridge abutments, pilings and
other shoreline structures against scour, water or ice erosion.

Riprap lining a lake shore

Concrete rubble used as riprap along


the San Francisco Bay shoreline

It is made from a variety of rock types, commonly granite or limestone,


and occasionally concrete rubble from building and paving demolition.
Riprap works by absorbing and deflecting the energy of waves before they
reach the defended structure.
http://en.wikipedia.org

Origin of Shoreline cross section.

www.mndnr.gov/waters

Rip Rap installation following some of conditions :


The riprap must not cover emergent aquatic vegetation.
Only natural rock (cannot average less than 6 inches or more then 30
inches in diemeter) mey be use that is free of debris that may cause
pollution or siltation.
A filter of crushed rock, gravel, or filter fabric material must be placed
underneath the rock.
The riprap must be no more than 6 feet
Waterward of the ordinary high-water level
The riprap must conform to the natural alignment of shore and must not
obstruct navigation or the flow of water.
The minimum finished slope waterward of the OHWL must be no steeper
than 3 to 1 (horizontal to vertical).
The riprapped area must be no more than 200 linear feet of shoreline
along lakes and wetlands or, along shorelines of streams, must be less
than five times width efective watercourse.
The site must not be a posted fish spawning area, designated trout
stream.
www.mndnr.gov/waters

Rip Rap cross section.


Note : Installation of riprap is allowed only to stop erosion or to restore an
eroded shoreline.
www.mndnr.gov/waters

Not less than 350 mm,


Not less than 1.5 x D50; and
Not less than a D100.
(Brown and Clyde (1989))
D15c/D85f < 5 < D15c/D15f < 40 (Brown and Clyde (1989))

Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, British Columbia., 2000, Riprap Design and Construction Guide, Canada.

Five Methods of Toe Protection for Revetments (Neill 1973)


Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, British Columbia., 2000, Riprap Design and Construction Guide, Canada.

Preparing for Sampling


Rock Gradations in a Quarry

Placing Rock Riprap Over a Filter Layer


on a 2H:1V Slope
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, British Columbia., 2000, Riprap Design and Construction Guide, Canada.

III. BIO ENGINEERING


bioengineering (including biological systems
engineering) is the application of concepts and methods
of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry,
mathematics, and computer science) to solve problems in
life sciences, using engineering's own analytical and
synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity
to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at.

http://en.wikipedia.org

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

Schematisation of root reinforcement. A root passing a shear zoneindicated


by the dashed horizontal linesis extended from its original length L0 Lc.
This generates the root force Fr = r Ar that can be resolved by the angle of
root inclination into components normal and parallel to the shear plane,
respectively, Fn and Fs.

Stokes et al. (eds), Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability, 91109. C.

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

Morgan, R.P.C., Rickson, R.J., 2005, Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall

ecodesignscape.co.uk

Mill Creek Access Road Reclamation -- work completed in 2005


with photo taken in 2009. Columbia
http://www.trcr.bc.ca/

IV. Case Study of


Shoreline Stabilization

Carton of Natural Shorelines Conditions

http://www.dec.ny.gov

Preserving the Natural Shoreline &


Planting Along the Shoreline

The ways prevents erosion caused by rain, wind, wave and ice action, and it
provides food, shade and cover for fish and wildlife
http://www.dec.ny.gov

Bioengineering (Soft Structures)

- Bioengineering incorporates plants in combination with natural materials such as logs, live
stakes (e.g., cuttings from species like willow), and brush bundles (i.e., branches from live
woody plants), creating a natural appearance and habitat for fish and wildlife.
- Bioengineering designs can lead to long-term stabilization of a shoreline, reducing the
need for future work.
http://www.dec.ny.gov

Rip Rap

Rip rap stabilization designs should include appropriate bank slope and rock size to protect
from wave and current action and to prolong the life of the embankment. A final slope ratio
of at least 1:2 (vertical to horizontal) is recommended, and a more stable 1:3 slope should
be used where possible.
A layer of gravel, small stone, or filter cloth placed under and/or behind the rock helps
prevent failure
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.dec.ny.gov

Gabion Baskets
Gabions (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and
Latin cavea meaning "cage") are cages, cylinders, or boxes filled with soil or
sand that are used in civil engineering, road building, and military applications.

en.wikipedia.org

Cross section of gabion revetment

snh.org.uk

geograph.org.uk
snh.org.uk

Gabion boxes & beach huts,


South Beach Studland
Gabion revetments (foregound) are generally preferred to gabion walls
(background) in coastal environments being less reflective of wave energy and
more stable. Blown sand is also better able to accumulate on revetments,
potentially softening their appearance.

Retaining Walls

Retaining walls are not encouraged and generally are not approved.

http://www.dec.ny.gov

THANK YOU