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Global Developments

Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety week, ICF, Perambur,

13th June 2003

P.G. Sreejith
Cholamandalam AXA
AXA Risk
Risk Services
Services Ltd.

Electrical Accidents-Statistics


•Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every

day (Source -NCRB)
• 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical
sources (Source -OISD)
• 8% deaths that occur in factories are due to
Electrical Accidents-Statistics

United States

• 25% of all fires occur due to electricity

• 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents
per year (NIOSH)
• Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death
(1982 - 1990) NIOSH
Present Status - ES-India

•ES Awareness is slowly growing

•Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be
understood by many
•More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India
•Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka,
Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)
•Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices
based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)
Various ES Standards / organizations-US
• NFPA - NEC (1897)
•NESC (1913), from IEEE
•NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage
detector that will signal the person if he gets close to
live power)-1970
• OSHA (1970)
•NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA
•Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago (1990)
•NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC
Global Developments in Electrical Safety

• Electrical Safety Products

•ES Auditing Techniques

•ES System Certifications

• Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System

•Electrical RM Programme
ES Products...
• Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs)

•Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs)

• Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs)

•Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool

•Thermography Surveys
ES Products
• Automatic Defibrillators

•Complete Home ES Kit

• Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System

•Electrical Product Safety Recalls

•Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)


•GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA

•Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)


• Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Sun’s

outer temperature- 5000 degree C
•No material on earth can withstand arc temperature
•RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults
•AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs
•AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips
•AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January
Arcing types

Arcing Waveforms

A loose wire at one terminal Arcing generated by a loose

of a light bulb. wire at a screw terminal.

• GCs are fires waiting to happen

•Loose connections at socket terminals will cause
glowing connections
•Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers
•Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses,
•GCDs operate at 83 degree C
•Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL
Infra-Red Hotspot Detector

• Used as part of effective EPM

•Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor
terminations, measurement of continuously running
critical motors
•Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting
•Does not penetrate glass, plastic
• Interpretation of readings - very critical
HFFR Cables

• Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables

•Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS


• Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire

Retardant low Smoke) cables
Thermography Surveys

• Part of predictive maintenance

•In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general
insurance companies
•Identification of potential survey points / equipment and
interpretation - very crucial
•NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys
Automatic External Defibrillators (AED)

•250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac

•AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit
•For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the
chances of survival decreases by 10%
•Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/-
•UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory
requirement in US
•No legal liability for deaths involving the use of
Linear Heat Sensing Cables
• Advantageous than detectors, more effective

•LHSC applications:
•Cable trays in cable galleries
•Switch gears
Automatic Fire D&E System

Fire Trace - local flooding application inside electrical

switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat
-sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone-friendly
fire extinguishing gas
More ES Products

•Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field)

•Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects,

ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E,
reverse P& N)

•Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes,

conduits, rebar, within 15” concrete)
Home ES Kit

• Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit,

comprising of:

•Surge protector
Electrical Product Safety Recalls

•Part of product liability

•Electrical products recalled:
•Power tool battery packs (defective battery
•Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification)
•IBM 15” PC monitor( overheating of electrical
components resulting in smoke)
• 3 pin plugs (improper earth connection)
ES Auditing Techniques
• Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative
Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique

• Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk

Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification

• Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability)


•Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises

Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR

Risk Ranking based on severity, probability

High Risk- Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards,

Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate
threat to life & property. Immediate correction
Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues-
correction at the next available opportunity.
Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term
ES System Certification
• Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management
System certification (OHSAS 18001)

•ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user

industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003)

• UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA

780 standard)

•Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations

Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations
• Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance
companies in Japan, US, etc.

•Product liability claims

•Reconstruction of electrical fires
•Major electrical equipment failures (MBD)
•Investigation of Transformer fires
•Bus duct failures
Electrical Risk- Based Maintenance

• Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules

•Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized

International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE,

• Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have

Effective Predictive Maintenance System
Lightning -Common
Lightning strikes only the tall objects/

Lightning does not strike the same object


You are safe inside a metal bodied car

during lightning!
Electrical Risk Management

• Identification of electrical hazards

•Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks)

•Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As

Reasonably Practicable) principle

Continuous electrical hazard identification

HAC Risk Assessment

•Extension to the existing HAC approach

•Would be part of future European legislation
• Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC
• With this new HAC approach, the equipment
optimization is expected to increase
New HAC-based Risk
Assessment Matrix
Gr ade of Igniti on

Gr ade of Release Continous Fre quent Infre quent Very Infre que nt

Continous Unacceptable Unacceptable Acceptable

unless low (e.g. Ex i
cons equences apparatus)
Primary Unacceptable Unacceptable Risk Assessment Acceptable (e.g.
required-look at Ex d apparatus )
cons equences
Secondar y Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Acceptable Acceptable
required-look at required-look at (E.g. Ex n
consequences but cons equences but apparatus)
Non-Haz ar dous Acceptable but Acceptable but Acceptable Acceptable
e xa mine e xa mine
catastrophic catastrophic
releases releases
Risk-Based ES Audit

Electrical Safety Audits focussed

on potential risks
 The audit methodology designed
to identify all potential electrical
risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.)
Semi-Quantification of events
using available failure data
•Need for Electrical Safety is universal
•ES awareness is increasing
•Partnership between regulators, employers,
manufacturers- growing
•Many injuries are prevented
•Learning from experience- very essential
•Innovative ES devices are being used by people

Much More to be done in the field of ES

in India!!
Technology can afford to get obsolete
but not a technocrat!!