The truth behind the veil

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Technology – Introduction, About the course, Q & A History of Computing Hardware Operating Systems / Programming Languages Databases Networks (includes introduction to Internet) Internet – What was, What is and What will (covering Wireless also) Security How Technology applies to You and Benefits of using it
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Best Friend Tool Catalyst Productivity Enhancer Shortcut to Goals Efficiency Improver Communication Channel and Enhancer Learning Enabler Interactive (some)
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I feel the need, the need for speed – Raise your adrenalin levels Your guide to the technology ocean Learn technology types and uses When we say technology – mostly in relation to Computing Although you will see that Computing is a subset of Technology Learn some terms, some concepts, some applications How is technology my best friend Understand technology landscape How to make use of Technology in my profession
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Abacus Difference Engine / Analytical Engine – Charles Babbage Lady Ada Lovelace – The first Programmer Mainframes – IBM Minicomputers – DEC Microcomputers The Hardware is the Computer The software is the Computer The network is the Computer
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• beads on rods to count and calculate • still widely used in Asia!

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• Difference Engine c.1822
– huge calculator, never finished

• Analytical Engine 1833
– could store numbers – calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions – powered by steam! – accurate to six decimal places
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• born on 10 December 1815. • named after Byron's half sister, Augusta, who had been his mistress. • After Byron had left for the Continent with a parting shot -- 'When shall we three meet again?' -- Ada was Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American brought up by her University
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Mainframes

Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon University

Minicomputers – PDP 11 - 1970

Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon University

Microcomputer - Altair 8800 Computer

Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon University

First Microprocessor – 1971

• The 4004 had 2,250 transistors • four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) • 108Khz • Called “Microchip”

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Taken from Mugil Technologies Website
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Taken from Click.in

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Questions & Answers

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Vaccum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits Very Large Integrated Circuits (Chips) Microprocessors Support Chips Motherboard ChipSet Specialized Microprocessors (Graphics and Sound) Input Output Devices Input (Keyboard / Mouse and others) Output (Display, Printer and others) Wireless Devices Network Devices (Switches / Hubs / Bridges / Gateways) Thought Readers , Robots, Prosthetic Devices Microcode

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Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956
• First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes • Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. • Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.

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First Transistor
• • • • Uses Silicon developed in 1948 won a Nobel prize on-off switch

• Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956
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Integrated Circuits

• Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips). • Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated- together into a single “chip” Copyright, 2010 Rajesh Menon

Very Large Integrated Circuits - CHIPS

Taken from Wikipedia
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Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Taken from ComputerMusuem.li
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http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/motherboarddiagram.html
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Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Taken from : Laptopshop.co.uk
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http://blogs.digitalmediaonlineinc.com/dvdconverter/? page=1
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http://www.misco.ie/productinformation/~88214~/Belkin%20Mini%20Op http://visual.merriam-webster.com/communications/office-automation/in

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http://pusine.wordpress.com/2008/10/02/input-and-output-devices/ http://www.samsung.com/pl/products/monitor/tft/images/940fn_l1a.jpg
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Taken from :

static.howstuffworks.com slipperybrick.com
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Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

htt p:// ww w. ad ob e.c om /de vn et/ col dfu sio n/a rtic les /co ldf usi on _sc

klaxxx.com http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press/199905/99-046/index.html medgadget.com
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Taken from Mugil Technologies Website
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Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

What is Operating System (OS) ? Why an OS ? Popular Operating Systems in the Market Strengths and Weakness Complimentary Programs New Trends – Network OS , Virtualization The future of OS What is a Programming Languages (PL) What does it do ? Generations of PL’s What PL’s are in vogue today ? The next generation PL Abstractions and Annihilation of PL’s

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

An OS is a software program which has the following features It talks to hardware It manages the CPU It manages the Memory It manages all I/O It also talks to different Software Subsystems OS works in the background OS for different hardware is different It talks to other devices using internal knowledge or programs called device drivers

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We cannot understand binary language very well We cannot remember details of all devices We cannot manage memory efficiently We need a human understanding interface to machines We need somebody to co-ordinate all activities that take place inside the machine

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PC - OS Windows Linux MacOS Mobile OS Symbian PalmOS Windows CE Network OS Chrome OS

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Strengths Simplicity day by day Abstraction User Friendly Non intimidating erode some value Eye for detail trustworthy Device agnostic Communicator Collaborator Scheduler Multitasking and MultiProgramming Interrupt Handler

Weakness Is getting bulkier Too many choices Vulnerable to threats If buggy, can Sometimes not Too many API’s

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Programming Languages Databases Utilities Extenders like Device Drivers Network

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Network OS A lightweight OS which acts as a interface to the internet E.g: Chrome OS

Vitualization Software Program which makes use of the CPU efficiently. Complements the OS. E.g: VMWare

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Plug and play OS Configurable Lots of value adding components talking to multiple OS’s Universal hooks Faster and Intelligent

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A way for us to communicate with computers A Program is a set of instructions Programming is the art and science of writing good programs Language is like a protocol that is used to communicate with the machine Hence PL is nothing but the art and science of writing programs that adhere to a protocol

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

A programming language (PL) is like any other language like say English It helps us to explain to the computer the problem that we are trying to solve It helps us achieve goals It makes us happy, when we see the goal achieved. It may contain bugs which have to be debugged in order to achieve the goal Hence debugging is a intrinsic part of writing a PL Creation, Preservation and Annihilation of a PL is similar to Life

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First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Sixth Generation Seventh Generation ????

Machine Language Assembly Language Procedural Language Non-Procedural Language Object Oriented Language AI languages

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C , C++ , C#, Java PHP, Python Lisp, Ruby on Rails

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Simple to use Intelligent Constructs Auto Correcting Self Modifying User FX Platform Agnostic Secure Constructs

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Abstraction Hiding details and exposing a very friendly interface to the user Human Like Predictive Analytical Qualitative, at times Annihilation Future is for non programming products Auto program writing programs Easy pick and choose interface End of Programming as we know it Ease of Programming – actually the term is value adding

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Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

What is a database Why a database is required Types of Databases Databases in the current Market What is an index OLTP, DSS, RealTime databases What is SQL What are different SQL Statements Standards Rollback Transactions (Undo) Locking Object Relational Databases DataTypes Relation between a database and a network The future of database

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

A database is a repository of data Like the Ocean has water, the database has data Data means the smallest unit of information Base means foundation Thus database means a foundation made of data Databases can be classified functionally or in other ways for eg: locationwise Databases can also be compared to DNA

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Where else can you keep your data Without data there is nothing in this world Data needs to be stored somewhere Data needs to be classified in order to organize it better Sometimes data about data is also required (Description or Metadata) Data also needs to be retrieved in order to achieve some goal

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Hierarchical database Network database Relational Database Object Relational Database Pure Object Database Information Database (Abstraction 1) Knowledge Database (Abstraction 2)

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ORACLE, SQL Server, DB2 MySQL, PostGreSQL (Open Source)

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

An index is a signpost To say it in a better way, it is a pointer Still better, it’s an efficient way of organizing data Indexes help to retrieve the required data in a flash (As compared to sequential access) There are different kinds of indexes like Binary Tree index, Hashes etc The downside of index is that it takes up some space in the database for its own existence

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

OLTP – Online Transaction Processing Indicates a kind of a database on which Add/Modify/Delete operations are being performed DSS – Decision Support System Indicates a kind of a database on which a Query is being performed RealTime A database where the time difference between stimulus and response is very low. In short, a fast database.

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

SQL stands for Structured Query Language It is based on relational theory in mathematics Actually it is not just a Query language, but offers other features also. SQL is a non procedural language Every statement itself is complete in itself There are languages like PL/SQL which extend the functionality of basic SQL In short, it adds a programming layer

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

DDL : Data Definition Language. Eg: CREATE, DROP DML : Data Manipulation Language. Eg: INSERT,DELETE,UPDATE DCL : Data Control Language. Eg: GRANT, REVOKE DQL : Data Query Language. Eg: SELECT Transaction Processing Statements: Eg: ROLLBACK, COMMIT

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

ISO/ANSI SQL-92

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Are used to undo the earlier action(s) One way this is achieved using what are called Redo Log Files There are rollback segments internal to the database Rollback can be till a particular time or a particular point in code Rollback points can be specified

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Locking is used to give controlled access to data There are many kinds of locks Exclusive Locks Read Only Locks Part read only and Part Exclusive locks These locks can be at different levels Some locks are on entire database, some on Files, some on a set of data A deadlock or a deadly embrace is when 2 users have locked out each other Modern databases automatically resolve such situations
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A relational database that incorporates object oriented paradigm Certain statements within SQL now are having object level meanings Objects support concepts such as Abstraction, Inheritance, Polymorphism

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Are fundamental units which depict what the type of data is Some of the datatypes are NUMBER, STRING, XML etc. Data within a database is stored in columns of a specific datatype, as given above

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Database is nature And Network is nurture We are all born with a database and realize the network around us. As time passes by …

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Databases will become more complex in terms of type of content Songs, Videos etc will be embedded within a database – I mean new data types There will be programs which help disparate databases to talk to each other Information and Knowledge would be stored within a database Meta data will become very important Databases will grow in size Redundancy would be taken care by some programs, although the trend is to increase Code will also be interspersed with data in a database
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

What is a network Why a network is required OSI Network Layer Network Topologies Bridges, Hubs, Routers, Switches, Gateways LAN, WAN, MAN Networking Protocols Connecting Devices in a Network Intelligence in a Network The internet – The mother of all networks Why the internet ARPANET, MILNET, Internet Bulletin Boards, Archie , Veronica World Wide Web

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Two or more devices and/or people connected to each other forms a network Nature itself is synonymous to network We are connected to each other through a bond that is not visible In a peoples network, we just have six degrees of separation from one another There are networking sites on the internet Business Networks like LinkedIn Social Networks like Facebook Communities Forums

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Imagine how life would be without a network, all by yourself There will be nothing to share or show off There will be a feeling of loneliness We see ourselves through the senses of other people, when conscious Ditto with Computers The more devices connected the more is the value of the network

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Taken From: http://www.webstepbook.com/supplements/slides/images/osi_model.pn Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Bridge : Connects two networks Hub : Central Point for connecting all computers Router: An intelligent Switch Switch : Used to connect 2 or more networks Gateway: A Switch for dissimilar networks

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LAN : Local Area Network WAN : Wide Area Network MAN : Metropolitan Area Network

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TCP / IP Protocol/Internet Protocol UDP FTP SMTP / POP3 Office HTTP NetBEIU NetBios

Transmission Comtrol

User Datagram Protocol File Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol / Post Protocol Hype Text Transfer Protocol

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The value of a network grows exponentially as more members are added to a network This is called MetCalfe’s Law The more devices you connect to each other, the more the value goes up Devices may require to be installed or may be plug and play The latter seems to be the trend for the future

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Intelligence resides in the devices on the network Not in the wire that transmits data Or the ether through which wireless signals flow Intelligence will move to the periphery and middle wherever there are devices Two or more devices may also have a collective intelligence Intelligence modules will be available as plug and play in the future

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Taken from:

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Like Sunlight is impartial, Knowledge should also be impartial The internet is the first attempt towards this noble goal The internet is evolving, it’s the mother of all networks on this blue planet It’s Ubiquitous, Net Neutral and Powerful Without internet, we would not be able to share so well Information will reach people late Some people may even not get the benefit of it We are all 1 big humanity connected thru networks like the Internet It accelerates change and providesRajesh Menon/ info to be more Copyright, 2010 - us tools

ARPANET : Is the predecessor of the internet MILNET: The military network on the internet Internet: Grew from the two above and now embraces most of the networks

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Earlier Websites were called Bulletin Boards Except that they were exclusive (not talking to other websites) Eg: Compuserve, AOL etc Archie and Veronica were tools to access the internet earlier before 1993 There were many other tools also Till the time, the World Wide Web was not invented

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

The internet as most of us know today is called World Wide Web A term coined and invented by Tim Berners Lee Web Browsers were made available and they could access the Web The underlying language of the Web was HTML The father of the Internet is Vint Cerf. Thanks to efforts of all these people, that we get to access the internet

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Building a Website Choosing your Service Provider Choosing the Platform (Microsoft or LAMP) Choosing the right plan Payment details Hosting your Blog Blogger or WordPress Paid Blogs Permalinks / Comments / Share Fun with Wikis Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales Adding / Modifying Wiki Pages Social Networking Facebook & LinkedIn Getting Paid thru AdSense and AdWords Consulting Sites (GLG / Nitron) Freelancing with eLance and Guru
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Buildin g a Websit e
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Your Service Provider is your middleman to the internet Learn more about the type of service provided by them Go to their website Read about them on blogs, forums, discussions etc. Check if there are Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) Narrate your expectations to the Service Provider Contact See if they can fulfill it Preferably in writing

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Select a platform that is suitable for your website For e.g: If your website has been developed on Microsoft Technologies, choose it Else if say PHP, Python or other Linux Open Source is used, Choose that If you have a plain brochureware, choose any one of the platforms By this we mean a set of HTML pages Once you select a platform, most of the service providers will not allow you to switch Mostly, the decision for you is a technical one
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

The plan typically has the following parameters What do you plan to do with an internet connection Size your requirement Look for a corresponding plan with the service provider Sizing involves bandwidth, which is the quantum of data flowing up and down through your computer You can switch plans, as and when your requirement changes Please check with Service Provider for this

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Normally you have to pay before you use a service For a new connection, there is going to be an additional charge (for modems, cables etc) Unless some scheme which waives off all charges is being offered Mostly people choose to pay monthly You can make payment by cheque / creditcard / Net Banking (depends on Service Provider) The less risky is cheque, but it involves a clearing process Choose the payment plan most suitable to you
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Hosting your Blog

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Both Bloggger and Wordpress are Blogging Sites Blogger is Google owned WordPress is independent To start blogging, Blogger is good WordPress gives more control over the blog and is slightly more complex You can Blog from wherever there is a blog button to your blog site

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Some sites pay you for blogging Typically they need you to Blog on a subject that you like Or Blog on a subject that they want It can be a product review or a topic You can also activate AdSense on your Blog (More about this later) The more the traffic the more popular your Blog and the more they pay you That roughly is the equation
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Permalinks : Permanent Link to your Blog Address Comments: Feedback from people who have read your blog Share: You can share the blog with others on your network Besides the above you will be able to mark them or click a ‘I like it’ icon Depends on the blog Remember to submit your blog to blog search engines to get a higher ranking The more the traffic the better Use a third party tool like Google Analytics to understand and predict traffic to your blog
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Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

WikiPedia is a collabortaive knowledge guide Founded by Jimmy Wales It is a reference guide It has a map counterpart called WikiMapia Similar to Google Earth Anyone can edit Wikipedia articles

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Wikipedia is available in many languages Choose your language and article You can Edit any page. Moderation is carried out and the page you edited or added becomes part of the Wikipedia knowledge base

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Social Networks are built with one aim : Share Content can be anything – pictures, text, videos The idea is to form a network of friends and share useful things with them Facebook : Is the most popular Social Networking Sites Others like Facebook : MySpace, Orkut LinkedIn: Is a Social Networking Site for Business People Others like LinkedIn: Ryze

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Adsense : is an advertising program for end users AdWords: is an advertising program for advertisers AdSense helps you to make money by providing Google’s taregted Ads on your site or blog AdWords helps you to own certain keywords which will activiate your Ad on Adsense Pages With Adsense you make money whenever somebody clicks on the targetted Ads With Adwords, your Ad comes up first in the Advertisements on a Adsense Network. You have to Pay Google for this service. Advantage: Traffic
Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

You can also make money by offering your services on a time basis GLG and Nitron are websites which list services to be fulfilled And if you can take up a consulting assignment you get paid Payment depends on your relation with them and experience You can enlist in these sites and provide consulting assognments

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

eLance and Guru are websites which advertise jobs These need to be done and payment received thereof There are many freelancing opportunities available. You have to bid for them and once awarded, do the work and get paid. Normally the projects are short and of value less than 5000 USD Good Luck !

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

The race between the good and the bad Privacy Encryption – Private and Public Key What happens when you boot up ? Malware – Adware, Spyware and Viruses (Trojans, Worms) Antivirus – what they can and what they cannot do Zero day exploits Phishing Firewalls, IDS Digital Signatures Hacking What next ?

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Since ages the cops have been chasing the criminals As light is to darkness, so is cops to criminals There are rules to follow – which is called dharma When people do not follow the dharma, they fall into disgrace The farther away from way of the dharma, the more they seem to have err-ed People do wrong actions because of ignorance The cops are our line of defence against the looming threat

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

We treasure our privacy. There are some parts of our life,, which cannot be exposed as doing so will cause discomfort to ourselves What to hide and what to expose varies from individual to individual Privacy is a key attribute of modern computing systems One way to have privacy is to authenticate the set of data that we need to make private Authorization further restricts the access to required data Privacy can be compromised by not just computers, but also people who are unaware

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Encryption is a way of changing data into an unreadable format It works on the basis of keys that are the gatekeepers to data Private encryption is typically a dataset and 1 key to decode the same Public Key Encryption uses 2 keys (RSA) Encryption is also referred to as Secured mode For eg: https The key strength may be 40 bit, 128 bit etc. The bigger the key the more difficult it is to break the code.

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Here’’s a typical PC boot up sequence Start POST Load Boot Record Load Kernel of OS Load Shell of OS Load Applications on Startup Give control to application

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Adware is a program which typically shows ads on your system, without your permission Spyware is more advanced. It can log in your keys , act as a part of a botnet Viruses are nasty little programs that cause a lot of nuisance. Trojans are a type of virus. E.g: E-mail attachments Worms are runaway virus programs which multiply very fast There are many other types of viruses like boot sector / file viruses

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Antivirus detects viruses and eradicates them They work typically on virus signatures Some work on heuristics Most of the anti viruses are pretty good, but virus writers are one step ahead. Eg: McAfee, Norton, AVG etc.

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Are the exploits written with 24 hours of launch of a product Antivirus people are always on the lookout for these viruses The exploit can be a weakness in a operating system, a patch or something else

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Gathering info thru social engineering is called Phishing The data typically is used to do something harmful to the person who revealed this data It can also be an organization or group instead of a person The problem is human beings who are gullible to such attacks The only solution is to be alert

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

A firewall is a block between the outside network and your computer IDS or intrusion detection system, detects suspicious activities A firewall can restrict access to your computer by closing some ports or restricting certain protocols

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Are electronic equivalent of paper signatures They are recognized to be legally binding in some countries Typically organizations like Verisign issue the same MS Word also has a provision for the same

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

Hacking is the art of understanding a system in depth When the knowledge that is gathered is used for bad purpose it is called black hat hacking When the knowledge that is gathered is used for good purpose it is called white hat hacking (ethical hackers) Those in between are called grey hat hackers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

To block a black hat hacker, you have to think like them Prevention is better than cure Being proactive matters Take backup regularly Viruses have started proliferating thru all channels like device drivers As gadgets become more intelligent the chances of a virus infecting them is more Social Engineering is something that needs to be tackled with more awareness
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Questions & Answers

Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon

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