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# Education indicators in the HDI

:
Expected years of schooling and
mean years of schooling

Friedrich Huebler
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Workshop on Measuring Human Development
Eschborn, 14 June 2013

Indicator 1: School life expectancy • SLE is the UIS term for expected years of schooling • Definition: SLE = number of years a child of school entrance age can expect to spend in a given level of education • Example: SLE for primary to secondary education – 4 grades of primary. 8 grades of secondary education – All children complete secondary education – All children repeat one grade – SLE for primary to secondary education = 13 years Slide 1 of 10 .

l SAPl t Dlt t a.l Pi t t Eunknown age.l SAPl t t l D School life expectancy at age a for level l in year t Enrolment of population at age i in level l in year t Enrolment of unknown age in level l in year t Population of age i in year t School-age population for level l in year t Theoretical duration of level l in year t Slide 2 of 10 .Calculation of SLE SLE = sum of age specific enrolment rates for a given level of education SLE SLEat .l Eit.l Pi t  t Eunknown age.l n  i a Eit.

19. 4. 2008-2012 15 Percent of countries SLE ISCED 1-6: Min. Latest available data for 139 countries.6 years Mean 13.SLE for primary to tertiary education. Slide 3 of 10 .2 years Max.7 years 10 5 0 5 10 SLE (years) 15 20 Source: UIS database. June 2013.

Repetition – High number of repeaters means more years spent in school – Alternative: SLE net of repetition 4. Adult education – Included in calculation of SLE for some countries until 2003 5. Treatment of pre-primary education – UIS excludes enrolment in ISCED 0 2. Starting age for calculation of SLE – UIS considers enrolment of all ages (0 years and older) – Small effect: small enrolment divided by large population 3. Enrolment and population from different sources of data 7. Full-time equivalent – No distinction between part-time and full-time education 6. Changes in education systems over time Slide 4 of 10 .Interpretation of SLE: Factors to consider 1.

No data on repeaters for higher SLEat .l t i P  E t unknown age.l Enrolment of population at age i in level l in Pi t year t t Eunknown age.Calculation of SLE net of repetition SLEN t a.l Population of age i in year t t SAPl Enrolment of unknown age in level l in year t t Dl School-age population for level l in year t t Rl Theoretical duration of level l in year t Note: SLEN can only calculated Repeaters in be level l in year for t ISCED levels 1 to 3.l t l SAP t l R t D  D l t SAPl t l School life expectancy at age a for level l in year t Eit.l Slide 5 of 10 .l n  i a E t i .

03 years 14 IRL GBR BRN NLD DNK SYC LIE DEU LKA ITAESP CHE MLT CZE SVN SAU FJI LUX COK GRC FIN SMR BEL MHL ECU VCT ISR QAT HKG OMN BHS DMA MEX EST GRD SWE WSM SVK HUN GEO IDN ARG BTN BIH ATG POL CYP LTU KAZ AUT MKD HRV VGB MNG BOL CUB ROU LVA COL BLR TTO LCA BGR SRB IRN SUR DZA BMU KNA GHA CHL AIA CYM CHN UKR AZE LBN RUS PER DOM KGZ SLV PAN PSE EGY TJK MACCPV VUT MAR VEN SYR MDA JAM TLS NIC UGA PRY PHL BEN LBR ARMGTM CMR MMR SWZ TGO KHM MWI LAO MOZ TZA MDG GMB BDI YEM SEN 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 PAK 6 MLI BFA TCD DJI NER 5 ERI 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 School life expectancy (years) 14 15 Source: UIS database. Latest available data for 124 countries. Slide 6 of 10 . 4.2008-2012 School life expectancy net of repetition (years) 15 Difference SLE – SLEN: Min.49 years Max. 0 years Mean 0. June 2013.

Indicator 2: Mean years of schooling • Definition: average number of completed years of education of a population (HDI: 25 years and older) • Indicator not yet produced by UIS • Goal: first UIS MYS database by October 2013. in collaboration with HDRO • UIS has data on educational attainment for years since 1946 • Annual UIS survey on educational attainment: Highest level of education completed for population 10 years and older Slide 7 of 10 .

Calculation of MYS • Similar approach as Barro and Lee (1993. 8 grades of secondary education – 50% completed primary education – 50% completed secondary education Slide 8 of 10 . 2010) MYS  YSl  HSl l MYS Mean years of schooling YSl HSl Number of years of schooling for level l Share of population for which level l is highest level attained • Example: – 4 grades of primary.

Challenges 1. completed primary) 3. Limited data on incomplete levels of education – No data on percentage of population that started but did not complete ISCED levels 2 to 6 – No data on years completed of incomplete levels of education 4. Limited data on years spent in tertiary education 5. incomplete primary. Combination of levels of attainment – Example: Austria: 25% completed lower secondary (includes no schooling. Foreign qualifications not always captured Slide 9 of 10 . Limited data coverage – Example: Sub-Saharan Africa: no data for 28 of 45 countries 2. Changes in education systems over time 6.

including household surveys – Revise UIS questionnaire on educational attainment to reflect changes in ISCED 2011.MYS: Next steps for UIS • Collection and analysis of educational attainment data – Review existing database – Collect and analyse data from additional sources. ask for data on MYS • Methodology – Test UIS model for MYS calculation. projection – Document UIS methodology – Convene expert group to review and validate methodology • Dissemination – Disseminate first set of UIS MYS estimates by October 2013 – Expand UIS database – Establish country review of MYS data Slide 10 of 10 . interpolation.

Contact information Friedrich Huebler Programme Specialist Education Indicators and Data Analysis UNESCO Institute for Statistics f.huebler@unesco.uis.unesco.org www.org .