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# ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS

RESISTANCE
ELECTRICITY

## - the flow of electron from atom to atom in a conductor

- constitutes a form of energy which occurs naturally only in unusable forms such
as lightning and other static discharges
- unlike fuels and heat, it cannot be stored and therefore must be generated and
utilized at the same instant
CURRENT (Ampere)
is the flow of charged particles through a conducting medium
Conductor material or object that allows electricity or heat to move through it
- when electricity flows in a conductor, a certain number of electrons pass a given
point in the conductor in 1 second.
- AMPERE unit of measure for the flow of current in a circuit
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (Volt)
- electrical pressure
- the stored energy when there is charge differential between two points.
- when there is Voltage differential or Electrical Potential between two
points in a
conductive material, charged particles will be forced to move.
- force attraction , or tendency to flow , between the electrified particles
concentrated at the positive and negative terminals
- VOLT unit of measure for Electric potential

RESISTANCE (Ohm)

## - a material's opposition to the flow ofelectriccurrent

- measure of materials difficulty in allowing electrical conduction
OHM unit of measure for Electric Resistance
Insulator materials that resist the flow of current
CONDUCTANCE (Siemens)
- measure of a materials ease in allowing movement of charged particles
ANALOGY

OHMS LAW

## Voltage pushes Amperage through Resistors

The current (I) that will flow in a direct current circuit is directly proportional to
the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance ( R) of the circuit.
Expressed as an equation, the basic form of Ohms law states that :

I=V/R
SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
Problem:

## An incandescent lamp having a hot resistance of 66 ohms is put into a socket

that is connected to a 115 V supply. What Current flows through the lamp?
Solution:
Given:
R = 66 ohms V= 115 V
I=?
Formula: I = V / R
I = 115 V / 66 Ohms
I = 1.74 Amperes

Problem:
a bathroom heater draws 11 Amperes at 120 V. What is the hot resistance?
Solution:
Given:
I = 11 Amperes
V= 120 V
R= ?
Formula:
R=V/I
R = 120V / 11 Amperes
R = 10.91 Ohms

Problem:
A household electric water heater is rated 220 V and 20 Amperes. What is the
units resistance when drawing this amount of current?
Solution:
Given:
I = 20 Amperes
V= 220 V
R= ?
Formula:
R=V/I
R = 120V / 11 Amperes
R = 10.91 Ohms

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

## - a complete conducting path that carries current from a source of

electricity to and through some electrical device (or load) and back to the
source.
- a current can never flow unless there is complete (closed ) circuit.
CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
SERIES CIRCUITS
- The elements are connected one after the other in series. Thus, the
resistance and voltages add.
- A practical application of series circuit is found in an incandescent lamp
street lighting circuits where the loss of one lamp can disable the entire
circuit.
- In any series circuit, the total Resistance (R) is the sum of resistance
Thus,
around the circuit.

Total Resistance = R1 + R2 + R3

PARALLEL CIRCUITS
- when two or more branches or loads in a circuit are connected between
the same two points
- Multiple loads are across the same voltage and, in effect, constitute
separate circuits.
therefore, in the circuit is the sum of the individual currents flowing in the
Thus,
branches.

Total Current IT = I1 + I2 + I3

## - Loads connected in parallel are equivalent to separate circuits

superimposed into a single connection. Each load acts as an independent
circuit unrelated to, and unaffected by the other circuits.

ELECTRICAL

SYSTEM IN BUILDINGS

## a network of electrical components used to supply, transmit

and use electric power.
COMPONENTS

## UTILITY transmitted power from the power plant

TRANSFORMER devices that changes or transforms
alternating
current of one voltage to alternating current
of another voltage.
STEP UP a transformer rated 120/480 v transforms lower
volt, 120
ac to 480 ac bigger load
STEP DOWN to transform a bigger load to lower voltage
METER - keeps a record of power consumption
DISTRIBUTION PANELS
BRANCH CIRCUITS
ELECTRICAL DEVICES -

TRANSFORMER

SOURCE

SERVICE

METER

CONVENIENCE
OUTLET

LIGHTING FIXTURE

PANEL
CIRCUIT BRANCH