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Building Utilities

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RESISTANCE

ELECTRICITY

- constitutes a form of energy which occurs naturally only in unusable forms such

as lightning and other static discharges

- unlike fuels and heat, it cannot be stored and therefore must be generated and

utilized at the same instant

CURRENT (Ampere)

is the flow of charged particles through a conducting medium

Conductor material or object that allows electricity or heat to move through it

- when electricity flows in a conductor, a certain number of electrons pass a given

point in the conductor in 1 second.

- AMPERE unit of measure for the flow of current in a circuit

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (Volt)

- electrical pressure

- the stored energy when there is charge differential between two points.

- when there is Voltage differential or Electrical Potential between two

points in a

conductive material, charged particles will be forced to move.

- force attraction , or tendency to flow , between the electrified particles

concentrated at the positive and negative terminals

- VOLT unit of measure for Electric potential

RESISTANCE (Ohm)

- measure of materials difficulty in allowing electrical conduction

OHM unit of measure for Electric Resistance

Insulator materials that resist the flow of current

CONDUCTANCE (Siemens)

- measure of a materials ease in allowing movement of charged particles

ANALOGY

OHMS LAW

The current (I) that will flow in a direct current circuit is directly proportional to

the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance ( R) of the circuit.

Expressed as an equation, the basic form of Ohms law states that :

I=V/R

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

Problem:

that is connected to a 115 V supply. What Current flows through the lamp?

Solution:

Given:

R = 66 ohms V= 115 V

I=?

Formula: I = V / R

I = 115 V / 66 Ohms

I = 1.74 Amperes

Problem:

a bathroom heater draws 11 Amperes at 120 V. What is the hot resistance?

Solution:

Given:

I = 11 Amperes

V= 120 V

R= ?

Formula:

R=V/I

R = 120V / 11 Amperes

R = 10.91 Ohms

Problem:

A household electric water heater is rated 220 V and 20 Amperes. What is the

units resistance when drawing this amount of current?

Solution:

Given:

I = 20 Amperes

V= 220 V

R= ?

Formula:

R=V/I

R = 120V / 11 Amperes

R = 10.91 Ohms

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

electricity to and through some electrical device (or load) and back to the

source.

- a current can never flow unless there is complete (closed ) circuit.

CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS

SERIES CIRCUITS

- The elements are connected one after the other in series. Thus, the

resistance and voltages add.

- A practical application of series circuit is found in an incandescent lamp

street lighting circuits where the loss of one lamp can disable the entire

circuit.

- In any series circuit, the total Resistance (R) is the sum of resistance

Thus,

around the circuit.

Total Resistance = R1 + R2 + R3

PARALLEL CIRCUITS

- when two or more branches or loads in a circuit are connected between

the same two points

- Multiple loads are across the same voltage and, in effect, constitute

separate circuits.

therefore, in the circuit is the sum of the individual currents flowing in the

Thus,

branches.

Total Current IT = I1 + I2 + I3

superimposed into a single connection. Each load acts as an independent

circuit unrelated to, and unaffected by the other circuits.

ELECTRICAL

SYSTEM IN BUILDINGS

and use electric power.

COMPONENTS

TRANSFORMER devices that changes or transforms

alternating

current of one voltage to alternating current

of another voltage.

STEP UP a transformer rated 120/480 v transforms lower

volt, 120

ac to 480 ac bigger load

STEP DOWN to transform a bigger load to lower voltage

METER - keeps a record of power consumption

DISTRIBUTION PANELS

BRANCH CIRCUITS

ELECTRICAL DEVICES -

TRANSFORMER

SOURCE

SERVICE

METER

CONVENIENCE

OUTLET

LIGHTING FIXTURE

PANEL

CIRCUIT BRANCH

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