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Rating of Some Power transformers used.

1. 220/132 KV 262A,437A 100MVA YNyn0 Auto

2.132/11.5 KV 350A,2008A 80MVA YNyn0yn0
3.132/11.5 70A,803A 16MVA YNyn0
The types of faults that the transformers are subjected to
are classified as :-

• Through Faults:-These are due to overload conditions

and external short circuits. Time graded O/C & E/F
relays are employed for external short circuit conditions.
Fuses are provided for Distribution transformers.

• Internal Faults:-
1) Electrical Faults : -Faults which cause immediate
serious damage such as phase to earth or phase to
phase faults, short circuits between
turns of HV&LV
windings, etc.

2) Incipient Faults: - Which are initially

minor faults,
causing slowly developing damage, such
as a poor
electrical connection of conductors or
breakdown of
insulation, etc.

The following relays are employed to protect the
transformer against internal faults.

1Differential relays
3REF relays

iii) Bucholz Relay

iv) Over fluxing relays

Differential Relays :-

Two basic requirements that the differential relay

connections are to be satisfied are :
a) It must not operate for load or external faults.
b) It must operate for internal faults.
Differential Relay
• Differential Relay has improved a lot with
the introduction of numerical relay

• Numerical relays use techniques such as
 blocking, wave shape recognition

• In case of electromagnetic and static

relays, in a typical delta-wye power
transformer, the current transformer
would be connected as wye-delta.
Setting Of 87T
Alarm Delay Trip Delay
Start Up 10% 10 sec 20% 0 sec
ST 10% 10 sec 20% 0 sec
MT 10% 10 sec 20% 0 sec
Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) : -
This relay is operative only for the internal faults of
the transformer and thus fast operating time can be

1. An external fault on the star side will result in current

flowing in the line CT of the affected phase and a
balancing current in the neutral CT and current in the
relay is zero and hence relay is stable. During an internal
fault, the line current on the line CT gets reversed and
hence relay operates.
2. The arrangement of residually connected CTs on the
delta side of a transformer is only sensitive to earth
faults on the delta side because zero sequence currents
are blocked by the delta winding.

For external faults no current flows through REF unless

a CT gets saturated. Hence minimum pickup current
setting is adopted (10% or 20% In) on REF relay. Based
on the through fault current, the stabilizing resistor is set
such that the relay will not operate for external fault
when a CT gets saturated. This relay operates only for
internal earth faults, instantaneously.
Setting Of 64R
Type Alarm Delay Trip Delay ROA
Start UpLow 10% 0 sec 60
ST HV imp
High 2V 5 sec 11V 0 sec
ST imp
High 10V 5 sec 50V 0sec
MT HV imp
High 4V 5 sec 21V 0 sec
MT LV imp
High 13V 5 sec 64V 0 sec
Overcurrent Protection:

Step 1 Delay Step 2 Delay

Start up
150% 1.4sec 900% 0 sec
Start up 150% 1.2 sec 800% 0sec
ST HV 150% 1.4 sec 900% 0sec
MT HV 145% 1 sec 1200% 0sec
Earth fault Protection:

Step 1 Delay
Start up
20% 1.4sec
Start up 20% 1.2 sec
ST SEF 30A 1 sec
MT SEF 20% 1sec
Overfluxing Protection:

1.Overfluxingcondition in a transformer can occur during

system over voltage and/or under frequency.

Alarm Delay Trip Delay

Start up 237.1 5sec 242K 2000
6 KV V sec
352K .143
V sec
Other Protective devices employed

•Pre ssu re R e lie f V a lu e ( P R V )

•W in d in g Te m p e ra tu re
•O ilTe m p e ra tu re
•O LTC B u ch h o lz
Buchholz Relays : -
W h e n e ve r a fa u lt in tra n sfo rm e r d e ve lo p
slo w ly ,
h e a t is p ro d u ce d lo ca lly , w h ich b e g in s to
d e co m p o se so lid o r liq u id in su la te d m a te ria ls
a n d th u s to p ro d u ce in fla m m a b le g a s a n d o il
flo w . T h is p h e n o m e n o n h a s b e e n u se d in th e
p ro te ctio n re la y o r p o p u la rly kn o w n a s
B u ch h o lz
re la y. T h is re la y is a p p lica b le o n ly to th e so -
ca lle d
co n se rva to r typ e tra n sfo rm e r in w h ich th e
tra n sfo rm e r
ta n k is co m p le te ly fille d w ith o il, a n d a p ip e
co n n e cts
Conservator Alarm


Figure shown as Bucholz relay connected into the pipe leading to
the conservator tank and arrange to detect gas produced in the
transformer tank. As the gas accumulates for a minor fault
the oil level falls and, with it a float `F' which operates a
mercury switch sounding an alarm. When a more serious
fault occurs within the transformer during which intense
heating takes place, an intense liberation of gases results.

These gases rush towards the conservator and create a rise in

pressure in the transformer tank due to which the oil is forced
through the connecting pipe to the conservator. The oil flow
develops a force on the lower float shown as "V" in the figure
and overtrips it causing it contacts to complete the trip circuit of
the transformer breaker. Operation of the upper float indicates
an incipient fault and that of the lower float a serious fault.