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Compressed Air Energy Storage
A l si P. A va m M TA G E E E 0 0 3 S7 EEE
Energy is stored to use it at a different time
than when it was generated. Renewable energy is often intermittent (like wind and sun), and storage allows use at a convenient time. Reliable and affordable energy storage is a prerequisite for using renewable energy. Energy storage is the most promising technology currently available to meet the ever increasing demand for energy.
Importance of Energy Storage
Thrust for Renewable Energy sources. Managing Grid Peaks and Outage Mitigation. Energy Buffering. Importance in the present context.
Types of Energy Storage Systems
Compressed Air Energy Storage
What is CAES?
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) refers
to the compression of air to be used later as energy source. At utility scale, it can be stored during periods of low energy demand (off-peak), for use in meeting periods of higher demand (peak load). Alternatively it can be used to power tools, or even vehicles. It is a type of Mechanical Energy Storage. Preferable for large scale storage. A CAES plant stores electrical energy in the form of air pressure, then recovers this energy as an input for future power generation.
METHODS METHODS FOR FOR COMPRESSION COMPRESSION
Assumes that no energy (heat) is transferred to
or from the gas during the compression process and all mechanical work is added to the internal energy of the gas, resulting in increases of temperature and pressure. The heat that appears during compression is also stored, then returned to the air when the air is expanded. This is a subject of ongoing study, but no utility scale plants of this type have been built.
The extra heat is removed from the air and is
dissipated into the atmosphere as waste. Upon removal from storage, the air must be reheated prior to expansion in the turbine to power a generator. The system is simpler than the adiabatic one. The only one which has been implemented commercially.
Isothermal Compression & Expansion
Assumes that the compressed gas remains at a
constant temperature throughout the compression or expansion process. Isothermal compression and expansion attempt to maintain operating temperature by constant heat exchange to the environment. It is only practical for rather low power levels, unless very effective heat exchangers can be incorporated.
Types of CAES systems
In a hybrid power generation system, the stored
compressed air is mixed with a fuel suitable for an internal combustion engine. For example, natural gas or biogas can be added, then combusted to heat the compressed air, and then expanded in a conventional gas turbine, using the Brayton cycle. In addition, Compressed air engines can be used in conjunction with an electric battery. The compressed air engine, drawing its energy from compressed air tanks, recharge the electric battery. Such a system is called a Pneumatic Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle-system.
Existing hybrid systems:
Future hybrid systems:
A hybrid plant was
A proposed hybrid
commissioned in power plant is under Huntorf (Germany), consideration in and again in Iowa. Here the wind McIntosh, Alabama power will be used (USA). Both systems for air compression. use off-peak energy Additional facilities for the air are under compression. development in Norton, Ohio and Iowa Stored Energy Park (ISEP).
CAES Power Plant at Huntorf
Lake or Ocean Storage
The need for pressurized vessels or for mining can
be obviated by placing the pressurized air underwater in flexible containers (e.g. plastic bags) - at the bottom of deep lakes or off sea coasts with steep drop-offs. Challenges include the limited number of suitable locations and the need for very-high-pressure pipelines between shore and depth. However, since the containers would be very inexpensive, the need for great pressure (at great depth) may not be as important. A key benefit of systems built on this concept is that charge and discharge pressures are always constant (as determined by depth).
Energy Storage in Submerged, Open Bottomed, Anchored Caissons
This is energy storage by the displacement of
water by compressed air. To recover the energy compressed air is an intermediate energy carrier. One possibility is to sink the type of caisson used. Structures could be constructed and floated into much deeper water, sunk and anchored to the bottom using rock anchors. A flexible air pipe could be brought to the surface, to say a wind turbine base, housing an air compressor and an air turbine generator set.
By pumping compressed air down to the caisson,
water would be ejected lowering the internal water surface to the bottom of the caissons. To recover the stored energy the air valve would be opened and the energy recovered via the air turbine as the water re enters and air is forced out. Because the container is open bottomed, there is no internal or external pressure force. However there will be massive buoyancy forces to be restrained. 90% of the energy will be in the displaced water and only 10% in the compressed air itself.
Compressed Air Energy Storage
The air that drives the
turbine is compressed produce power during and heated using periods of peak natural gas. demand because it uses air that has Nearly two-thirds of the already been natural gas is compressed and consumed by a typical stored underground. natural gas turbine because the gas is Uses low-cost heated used to drive the compressed air to machine's power the turbines compressor. and create off-peak electricity, conserving Both compression and some natural gas. generation are on a single shaft and must Compression and work in unison. generation units are
Needs less gas to
Economics of CAES
CAES is the only other commercially available
technology (besides pumped-hydro) able to provide the very-large system energy storage deliverability (above 100MW in single unit sizes). Since CAES facilities have no need for air compressors tied to the turbines, they can produce two to three times as much power as conventional gas turbines for the same amount of fuel.
As with most technologies, compressed air has
safety concerns, mainly the catastrophic rupture of the tank. Highly conservative safety codes make this a rare occurrence at the tradeoff of higher weight. Codes may limit the legal working pressure to less than 40% of the rupture pressure for steel bottles, and less than 20% for fiberwound bottles. High pressure bottles are fairly strong so that they generally do not rupture in crashes.
Propulsion Compressed Air Cars
No roadside emissions Low cost technology
With gas prices estimated to be in the $5-6 per
million BTU range in the short to medium term, an investment in underground storage could pay for itself over time. If the nation develops an energy policy that pushes renewable power sources, the idea may catch on. Wind and solar energy, for example, can be stored whenever it is generated and then released on demand—helping to negate the argument that those power sources are intermittent and therefore unreliable.
Energy is lost when it is “pumped” into the
cavern and then re-extracted as compressed air. Building underground storage can be expensive, which might make some prospective projects infeasible.
It's a cost effective solution, developers add,
because it would replace expensive “peaking” units that provide power during the hottest summer days or the coldest winter nights. Air is stored in the form of compressed air energy during off peak hours and then released during the periods of highest demand, which will also lower the prices that consumers pay for power. At the same time, compressed air energy storage units can reduce the stress on base load plants that would otherwise have to ramp up and down.
In the long run, this is cheaper than building a
coal or natural gas plant. By extension, compressed air energy storage plants would minimize the release of harmful emissions created by fossil fuel-fired generators. By utilizing CAES, the energy from a variety of sources (including wind, solar and the grid itself) can be temporarily stored to be recovered at a later time, presumably when it is more needed and, perhaps, more valuable.
http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.CompressedAirEnergyStorage.com http://www.cogeneration.net http://pepei.pennnet.com http://jcwinnie.biz/wordpress/?p=2115 http://www.epri.com http://www.energysolutionscenter.org http://www.caes.net
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Alvasim P. A MTAGEEE003 S7 EEE
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