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# Boiling

Chapter 10
Sections 10.1 through 10.5

• Special form of Newton’s law of cooling: qs  h  Ts  Tsat   h  Te  Tsat  saturation temperature of liquid   Te   Ts  Tsat   excess temperature .General Considerations General Considerations • Boiling is associated with transformation of liquid to vapor at a solid/liquid interface due to convection heat transfer from the solid. • Agitation of fluid by vapor bubbles provides for large convection coefficients and hence large heat fluxes at low-to-moderate surface-to-fluid temperature differences.

 Saturated Boiling: Liquid temperature is slightly larger than saturation temperature.  Subcooled Boiling: Liquid temperature is less than saturation temperature.General Considerations (cont. as well as by bubble-induced mixing.  Forced Convection Boiling: Fluid motion is induced by external means. .) • Special Cases  Pool Boiling: Liquid motion is due to natural convection and bubble-induced mixing.

Boiling Curve The Boiling Curve Reveals range of conditions associated with saturated pool boiling on a qs   Te plot.ONB   Te  5oC  . Water at Atmospheric Pressure • Free Convection Boiling   Te  5oC   Little vapor formation.  Liquid motion is due principally to single-phase natural convection. • Onset of Nucleate Boiling .

.Boiling Curve (cont. – Heat transfer is principally due to contact of liquid with the surface (single-phase convection) and not to vaporization. – Liquid/surface contact is impaired.) • Nucleate Boiling  5   Te  30oC   Isolated Vapor Bubbles  5   Te  10oC  – Liquid motion is strongly influenced by nucleation of bubbles at the surface. – qs continues to increase with  Te while h begins to decrease. – h and qs increase sharply with increasing  Te .  Jets and Columns  10   Te  30oC  – Increasing number of nucleation sites causes bubble interactions and coalescence into jets and slugs.

)    Te  30oC  • Critical Heat Flux . conditions are characterized by film boiling.  An increase in qs beyond qmax and the surface temperature can spontaneously achieve a value that potentially exceeds its melting point  Ts  1000oC  .  A reduction in qs follows the cooling curve continuously to the Leidenfrost point corresponding to the minimum  for film boiling. • Film Boiling  Heat transfer is by conduction and radiation across the vapor blanket. qmax  Maximum attainable heat flux in nucleate boiling.CHF.  If the surface survives the temperature shock. heat flux qmin .Boiling Curve (cont.   1 MW/m 2 for water at atmospheric pressure.  qmax • Potential Burnout for Power-Controlled Heating  causes the surface to be blanketed by vapor.

• Transition Boiling for Temperature-Controlled Heating  to qmin   with increasing  Characterized by a continuous decay of qs  from qmax  Te .)  causes an abrupt reduction in surface  A reduction in qs below qmin temperature to the nucleate boiling regime.  Also termed unstable or partial film boiling.  Surface conditions oscillate between nucleate and film boiling. .Boiling Curve (cont. but portion of surface experiencing film boiling increases with  Te .

Correlations Pool Boiling Correlations • Nucleate Boiling  Rohsenow Correlation  g  l  v      qs  l h fg  1/ 2   c p . f fg l  Cs . n  Surface/Fluid Combination (Table 10.l  Te  3 n C h Pr  s .1) • Critical Heat Flux   g  l   v   qmax  Ch fg v   v2   1/ 4 C → surface geometry dependent . f .

62 0.67 hfg  h fg  0.Correlations • Film Boiling The cumulative (and coupled effects) of convection and radiation across the vapor layer 4/3 h 4 / 3  h conv  h rad h 1/ 3  g  l  v  hfg D 3 h conv D Nu D  C  kv  k T  T   v v s sat   Geometry Cylinder(Hor.80 c p . h  hconv  0. v  Ts  Tsat  h rad    Ts4  Tsat4  Ts  Tsat If hconv  h rad .75 h rad 1/ 4 .) Sphere C 0.

.Problem: Electronic Chip Cooling Problem 10.23: Chip thermal conditions associated with cooling by immersion in a fluorocarbon.

2  13.4  kg m3   o Ts   15. l  qs     l h fg   8.9oC 1/ 6  15.9oC .f h fg Prln  cp.9  57  C  72.1  103 kg s 2  1/ 3      g      l v   1/ 6    9.807 m s 2  1619.Problem: Electronic Chip Cooling (cont) Ts  Tsat  Cs.

Problem: Electronic Chip Cooling (cont) .

Problem: Electronic Chip Cooling (cont) .

Problem: Quenching of Aluminum Sphere Problem 10. S a tu ra te d w a te r Tsat = 100oC .26: Initial heat transfer coefficient for immersion of an aluminum sphere in a saturated water bath at atmospheric pressure and its temperature after immersion for 30 seconds.

Problem: Quenching of Aluminum Sphere (cont.)  g      h D3 h conv D l v fg  Nu D   C   v k v  Ts  Tsat   kv   h rad   4  Ts4  Tsat Ts  Tsat  1/ 4 (1) (2) (3) .

7% of the total heat rate.Problem: Quenching of Aluminum Sphere (cont.) (4) The radiation process contribution is 6. (5) .