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School Of Mine and Petroleum Engineering







I wish to thank my almighty God and my parent for their

support. My appreciation goes to department geology at
the University of Dodoma (UDOM) for giving this
opportunity to conduct an advanced geological mapping
at Chimala
Special thanks will be to


Mr. Mlaponi,
Mr. Ceven Shemsanga
Mr. Gerald and
All group members

Chimala field project was aimed on advanced
geological mapping and description of
different rock lithologies
Chimala area is the area of most important in
learning different rock lithologies; this is
because the area composed of all rock types
The study area was largely covered by green
shale were structures such as oriented joints
was encountered due to shearing
The main objective of my study was to
determine how surface geology of the are has
been changing from time to time

 Historically the area was

characterized with different
geological setting such as
metamorphism which took place
2 billion years ago, intrusions
which took place 1.3 billion years
ago and sedimentation which
took place 0.8 billion years ago

5 billion years ago the area of Chimala was a basin. and it was subjected to different geological and tectonic setting at different time interval where Metamorphism which took place 2 billion years ago and led to the formation of metamorphic rocks such as schists.GENERAL REPORT Introduction Historical background At about 2. gneisses on the eastern part of the area .

in the western side of the area Sedimentation was an event followed by intrusion and it took place around 0.Historical background cont…. After metamorphism event intrusions followed and which took place around 1.8 billion years ago .3 billion years ago and this led to the formation of igneous rock such as granite.

Chronological history of chimala .

9021000/0627000 Also the area is accessible because it is located along Dar-es-salaam to Zambia main road and railway line .the area The area of our field work was located at Chimala 70 km east of the regional centre of Mbeya at 9023000/0625000. 9021000/0625000 and 9023000/0627000.

Daytime maximum temperatures were around 32 degrees C and night minimum temperature were around 08 degree C .Climate and general physiographic of the area (a) CLIMATE July is in the dry season and only a few of the larger perennial streams were flowing.

formed from variably resistant sedimentation sequences and due to uplifting of the basin separated by flatter thorn bush . (b)Physiographic of the area The area is sparsely inhabited bush country.Climate and general physiographic of the area …………. with human habitation restricted to villages along the main Dar-es-Salaam to Malawi/Zambia road and limited agriculture is practiced along the road The area is characterized by well-vegetated low hills.. koppies and ridges.

2002). .Geology of the area (i) Regional geology The area mapped falls on the published 1: 125 000 geological sheet Chimala (Harpum and Brown. 1958) The sheet is purported to be situated at the junction between the Lupa and Mpangwa terranes of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt and the broadly coeval Usagaran granitoid terrane to the NE (example Muhongo et al..

Geology cont……. The Ubendian rocks are intruded by a number of igneous suites of unknown age and are unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic Bukoba Supergroup clastic cover rocks The basement area is bounded immediately to the north by the extensive Quaternary alluvial deposits of the Buhoro Flats ..

found in northern part of mapped area .medium to fine grained rocks (b) Green shale..thin laminated to massive shale deposit (c) Alluvium.Geology cont……. (ii) Local geology Locally the geology of the area mapped was largely dominated by green shale and alluvium with a small area covered by sandstone (a) Sandstone.

METHODOLOGY Under this field work the mapping followed standard local geological mapping procedures Instrument used ware (a) Data collection (i) Geological map (Harpum and Brown. (iii) Magnetic compass. 1958) (ii) Topographical map. (iv) GPS and hand lens (v) Geological hummer and (vi) Field note book (vii) Pen and digital camera .

METHODOLOGY cont… (b) Plotting collected data (i) Meter ruler. . (ii) Colored pensil. (iii) Graphite pensil and (iv) mathematical set and (v) Tracing paper instruments were used during plotting of information collected from the field.


RESULT AND DISCUSSION Result The area mapped was covered by clatic sedimentary rocks which was mainly Shale and and Sandstone and alluvium which dominated the northern part of the mapped area .

0625000/9021000 AND 0625000/9023000 .Result cont…  A SKETCH OF GEOLOGICAL MAP SHOWING THE AREA MAPPED FROM THE FIELD FROM 0627000/9021000 AND 0627000/9023000.

Result cont…. . the ability to split into thin sheets generally parallel to the bedding. illite.0625 mm). SHALE Shales are characterized by the property of fissility. montimorllironite . So shale is the general term applied to this class of rocks (> 50% of particles are finer than 0. bauxite.. gibsite. These rocks are composed mainly of clay minerals such as kaolinite. chlorite and bentonite.

in some stream cut massive deposit of these shales was encountered .. Shales are thin laminated to thick laminated rocks which impart fissility.Result cont….

. these environments favour deposition of very fine grained rocks such as . Depositional environment The rocks were probably formed from deep basin and deep water environments.Result cont…. river flood plain or lake.

Result cont….. very fine grains which are well sorted. and lamination Mineralogically shale composed of clay minerals where green shale composed mainly of chlorite and illite which impart greenish colour to the rock . its greenish color. Physical properties and mineralogical composition The main physical properties of shales which were observed in the field were ability to split into thin sheets.

. These minerals were formed during diagenesis where change in clay mineralogy was dependent on the temperature and these clay minerals resulted from change of montmorillonite and .Result cont….

Result cont….. SANDSTONE From the mapped area. poorly sorted. these sandstone was reddish in colour . and was mainly quartz-arenite as the product of extensive period of sediment reworking  . a little area covered by sandstone outcrop was encountered.

poorly cemented medium-grained sandstone. Dominant sediment is friable.. which reveal terrestrial environment sediments (Spence. Depositional environment Depositional environment of the sandstones from Chimala basin can be proved to be of terrestrial environment.Result cont…. 1954) . consisting of angular to subangular grains of quartz and feldspar with Calcite cement.

Result cont….. Depositional environment The sandstone that were found from the mapped area suggests that the rock were probably formed from shallow marine were transporting medium of sediment were weak. that is the transporting medium failed to sort out the grain size of sand resulting into poorly sorted sandstone .

.. Physical properties and mineralogical composition The physical properties of sandstone is the function of the following factors Nature of the provenance. Nature of the transporting medium.Result cont…. Mineralogical composition and Diagenetic processes.

Result cont….. Reddish colour of the rock which was probably caused by the haematite coating in the rock and Poor hardness due to poorly cemented grains and less compaction during diagenesis . Physical properties The physical properties encountered in the field was texture of the rock where the grain sizes was ranging from medium grain to fine sand grains.

Result cont….. acid gneisses and schists (Maurice. Mineralogical composition The most common mineral in sandstone is quartz. 1991) . the majority of quartz grains are derived from plutonic granitoid rocks. the most stable of all minerals under sedimentary conditions.

. but the main accumulations are the extensive silty deposits which form the Buhoro flats region to the north of the . Alluvium Large amounts of medium to fine alluvium were found along some of the stream cuts.Result cont….

Result cont…. Geological cross-section The geological cross-section of the area was drawn from north-east to the south-west of the mapped area where most of the lithologies were dipping south-west and the average strike of 3090 ..

774”/E034008.. Dip direction South-west Strike 3000 . Example data collected on 21st July 2012 Stop No.Result cont….950” Dip 400. 1 Utm coordinate 0626369/9021953 Lat/long S08050.

.Result cont…. Geological Cross-section .

. 1958) the surface geology of Chimala has been changing from time to time due to human activities such as agricultural activities.DISCUSSION According to the Geological map (Harpum and Brown.

Consider a sketch of geo-map extracted from British geological map of 1958 (Harpum and Brown.. we found that the surface area covered by green shale from the area mapped has been decreased almost by 30% due to human activities .DISCUSSION CONT…. 1958) and the geological map prepared from the field in 2012.

1958) and in some areas example at 0625745/9021925 and 0625722/9021996 it was found that people extract these sandstone for settlement construction purpose . The area which was once occupied by green shale was found to be occupied by clay soil and alluvium due to agricultural activities.   Also some continuation of sandstone was not found as shown from the geological map of 1958 (Harpum and Brown.DISCUSSION CONT….

0625000/9021000 AND 0625000/9023000 . A SKETCH OF GEOLOGICAL MAP SHOWING THE AREA MAPPED FROM THE FIELD FROM 0627000/9021000 AND 0627000/9023000.DISCUSSION CONT….

DISCUSSION CONT…. 1958) SHOWING THE AREA MAPPED FROM THE FIELD FROM 0627000/9021000 AND 0627000/9023000. A SKETCH OF GEOLOGICAL MAP (Harpum and Brown. 0625000/9021000 AND 0625000/9023000 .

Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion The result represented here reveal the outcome of the field observation from which a convincing evidence shows that the surface geology of the area have been changing from time to time due to human activities .

Recommendation The supervisors should survey the area before distributing to the students. this will avoid some groups to be given the areas with the same lithological unit as it happened during our field work The management of the university of Dodoma should provide enough tools and instrument in order to increase effectiveness and accuracy of the result obtained from the field .

F. Back. (1958). 4. SpringerVerlag. Geological Survey Department.E. H. . P. 5.Gerrienne. Beeckman and S. Harpum. H. Appel. Journal of African Earth Sciences 26(3):387-396.. Tuisku. and Brown. Journal of African Earth Sciences..E. 1998. Dodoma. D. Mnali. P. I.. Sedimentary Petrology. Maurice E.References 1. P. H. Damblon. Third edition. Heidelberg. 34. 1980. Highpressure granulite-facies metagabbros in the Ubendian Belt of SW Tanzania: preliminary petrography and P–T estimates.. and Singh. S. 279–285. Temu. E. (2002). Tucker. H. J. 3. Depositional sedimentary environments (2nd updated edition). D’Outrelepont. S. Muhongo. 2. and Stendal. Delvoux. 1:125 000 scale geological map.R. Identification of a fossil wood specimen in the Red Sandstone Group of Southwestern Tanzania: Stratigraphic and tectonic implications. An Introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks Reineck.B. P. Geological map of quarter degree sheet 71SW (Chimala).