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A Train of Closed Feed Water Heaters

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi

A Trade off between Irreversibility and Reliability !!!

Diagram of Large Power Plant Turbine

Typical Modern Power Plant Turbine

HP Turbine Rotor

LP Turbine Rotor

LP Turbine Rotor

Block Diagram of A Large Steam Turbine


Main Steam

Reheat Steam

IP

HP

IP
LP

Steam for
Reheating
OFWH 4

CFWH 6

CFWH 5

LP

CFWH 3
CFWH 2
CFWH 1

Condenser

Thermodynamic Analysis of A Power Plant

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION


Effect of Higher Steam Conditions on Unit Performance

As the first step in the optimization of cycle steam conditions, the


potential cycle efficiency gain from elevating steam pressures and
temperatures needs to be considered.
Starting with the traditional 165 bar/5380C single-reheat cycle,
dramatic improvements in power plant performance can be achieved
by raising inlet steam conditions to levels up to 310 bar and
temperatures to levels in excess of 600 C.
It has become industry practice to refer to such steam conditions, and
in fact any supercritical conditions where the reheat steam
temperatures exceed 566 C, as ultrasupercritical.

Heater Selection and Final Feedwater Temperature

In order to maximize the heat rate gain possible with ultrasupercritical


steam conditions, the feedwater heater arrangement also needs to be
optimized.
In general, the selection of higher steam conditions will result in additional
feedwater heaters and a economically optimal higher final feedwater
temperature.
In many cases the selection of a heater above the reheat point (HARP) will
also be warranted.
The use of a separate desuperheater ahead of the top heater for units with a
HARP can result in additional gains in unit performance.
Other cycle parameters such as reheater pressure drop, heater terminal
temperature differences, line pressure drops and drain cooler temperature
differences have a lesser impact on turbine design, but should also be
optimized as part of the overall power plant cost/performance trade-off
activity.

Analysis of Regeneration through CFWH


Define y as fraction of mass extraction:

m extraction

m SC

Q in m SG h1 h8

m SG
ym SG
m SG 1 y

Q out m SG 1 y h3 h4 y h7 h4

W turbine m SG h1 h2 1 y h2 h3

W pump m h5 h4

m SG

Energy Balance for CFWH

m SG y & h2

m SG h8 m SG h5 m SG y h2 h6

h2 h6 y h8 h5

m SG & h8

mSG & h5

h8 h5
y
h2 h6

m SG y & h6

m SG y & h7

HP Closed Feed Water Heater

Bleed Steam

Feed Water in

C=Condenser

DC

DS

Feed Water out

Feedwater heater with Drain cooler and Desuperheater

DC=Drain cooler
DS=Desuperheater

Condensate

m SG y & h2

Bled steam

TTD

m SG & h8

m SG y & h6
T

-TTD=Terminal
temperature difference

mSG & h5

DC

DS

Desuperheating Zone - The integral desuperheating zone


envelopes the final or hotest feed water pass and is thermally
engineered to assure dry wall tube conditions with a minimum
zone pressure loss.
Dry wall conditions in this zone provide maximum heat recovery
per square foot of transfer surface by taking full advantage of
the available temperature differential between the superheated
steam and the feedwater.
Dry wall conditions also prevent flashing, which is detrimental to
proper desuperheating zone operation.
All desuperheating zones are analyzed to make sure they are
free of destructive vibration.

HP Closed Feed Water Heater

HP Turbine

Tbi, pbi, Tbsi


Condensing Shell

Drain Cooler

Desuperheater

Tfi

Tfi+1

TRAP

Tbi, pbi, Tbsi

Condensing Shell

Drain Cooler

Desuperheater

Tfi

Tfi+1

TRAP

Tf

Tube length

LP Closed Feed Water Heater

LP Closed Feed Water Heater

LP Turbine

Tbi, pbi, Tbsi


Condensing Shell

Tfi

Drain Cooler

Tfi+1

TRAP

Drain Subcooling Zone - When the heater drains temperature


is required to be lower than the heater saturation temperature, a
drain subcooling zone is employed.
The drain subcooling zone may be either integral or external,
and as a general rule, it is integral.
The integral drain subcooling zone perates as a heat exchanger
within a heat exchanger, since it is isolated from the condensing
zone by the drain subcooling zone end plate, shrouding, and
sealing plate.
This zone is designed with generous free area for condensate
entrance through the drains inlet to minimize friction losses
which would be detrimental to proper operation.
The condensate is subcooled in this zone, flowing up and over
horizontally cut baffles.

Tbi, pbi, Tbsi


Drain Cooler

Tfout

Condensing Shell

TRAP

Tf

Tube length

Tfin

Work done by Bleed Steam

h1

h2
h5

h8

h6
Work done by bleed (extracted) steam:

wbleed

wbleed y h1 h2

h8 h5
h1 h2

h2 h6

Closed Feed Water Heaters (Throttled


Condensate)

Analysis of Regeneration through Two CFWH

Define y as fraction of mass extraction:

y1

m b ,1

m SG

& y2

mb, 2

m SG

Q in m SG h1 h12

Q out m SG y1 y2 h8 h5 1 y1 y2 h4 h5

W turbine m SG h1 h2 1 y1 h2 h3 1 y1 y2 h3 h4

W pump m h6 h5

Energy Balance for LP-CFWH

m y2 & h3

m y1 & h11

h9 h6
h8 h11
y2
y1

h3 h8
h3 h8

m& h9

m y1 y2 & h7

m & h6

m y1 y2 & h8

m h9 m y1 y2 h8 m h6 m y1 h11 m y2 h3

Energy Balance for HP-CFWH

m y1 & h2

m h12 m h9 m y1 h2 h10

m& h12

m y1 & h10

h2 h10 y1 h12 h9

m & h9

h12 h9
y1
h2 h10

m y1 & h11

Work done by Bleed Steam

h12 h9
h1 h2
wbleed ,1 m y1 h1 h2
h2 h10
wbleed , 2

wbleed , 2

wbleed ,tot

h9 h6
h8 h11
m y2 h1 h3
y1
h1 h3
h3 h8
h3 h8

h9 h6 h12 h9

m y2 h1 h3

h3 h8 h2 h10

h8 h11

h1 h3
h3 h8

h9 h6 h12 h9 h8 h11
h12 h9
h1 h2



h1 h3
h2 h10
h3 h8 h2 h10 h3 h8

wbleed ,tot

h9 h6 h12 h9 h8 h11
h12 h9
h1 h2



h1 h3
h2 h10
h3 h8 h2 h10 h3 h8

wbleed ,tot

hHPfeed

hHPbleed

hLPfeed hHPfeed
wunitext1

hLPbleed hHPbleed

hwastebleed

hHPbleed

wunitext 2

Thermodynamic Analysis of A Power Plant

Train of Shell & Tube HXs.

6
5
4
3
GSC

DC

1
GSC
DC

The Mechanical Deaerator


The removal of dissolved gases from boiler feedwater is an
essential process in a steam system.
Carbon dioxide will dissolve in water, resulting in low pH
levels and the production of corrosive carbonic acid.
Low pH levels in feedwater causes severe acid attack
throughout the boiler system.
While dissolved gases and low pH levels in the feedwater
can be controlled or removed by the addition of chemicals.
It is more economical and thermally efficient to remove
these gases mechanically.
This mechanical process is known as deaeration and will
increase the life of a steam system dramatically.

Deaeration is based on two scientific principles.


The first principle can be described by Henry's Law.
Henry's Law asserts that gas solubility in a solution decreases as
the gas partial pressure above the solution decreases.
The second scientific principle that governs deaeration is the
relationship between gas solubility and temperature.
Easily explained, gas solubility in a solution decreases as the
temperature of the solution rises and approaches saturation
temperature.
A deaerator utilizes both of these natural processes to remove
dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other non-condensable
gases from boiler feedwater.
The feedwater is sprayed in thin films into a steam atmosphere
allowing it to become quickly heated to saturation.
Spraying feedwater in thin films increases the surface area of the
liquid in contact with the steam, which, in turn, provides more
rapid oxygen removal and lower gas concentrations.

This process reduces the solubility of all dissolved gases and


removes it from the feedwater.
The liberated gases are then vented from the deaerator.
Correct deaerator operation requires a vessel pressure of about
20 30 kPa above atmospheric, and
a water temperature measured at the storage section of 5 0C
above the boiling point of water at the altitude of the
installation.
There should be an 45 60 cm steam plume from the deaerator
vent, this contains the unwanted oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The following parameters should be continuously monitored to
ensure the correct operation of the deaerator.
Deaerator operating pressure.
Water temperature in the storage section.

Principle of Operation of A Dearator