Successful Projects

planning and managing a project

Imran Hameed Durrani Project Director Governor’s Secretariat Balochistan.
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Aims of the Session • Introduce project cycle and its Phases. • Provide tools for systematic approach to Project Development. • Constraints at each level of the Project Cycle.
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Presentation Outline
Introduction What Is a project? What is project management? Project management constraints Project lifecycle: Scoping, Planning,

Executing, Controlling, Closing
Project Software Project-related Resources
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What Is a Project?
Temporary in nature (e.g. create a set of

online tutorials about using government documents)

Specific goals (e.g. set of online tutorials

on finding Ontario government pubs)

Clear-cut starting and ending date Dedicated funding (in most cases) (
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Projects Are About Change
Change that can be

measured/evaluated over time.
how will behaviour be changed? how will the change impact/benefit

our users, staff? what will be done more efficiently, effectively, or that we couldn’t do before?
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What Project Management Isn‛t
If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there. George Harrison, "Any Road", Brainwashed,
2002.

If you don't know where you are, a map won't help.

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PM is a Process
“Good project management doesn't have to be costly, complicated, or cumbersome. In short, don't panic. You already know a lot about managing projects. If you've moved to a new home, hosted a family reunion, or remodelled a bathroom, you already know about achieving objectives, sticking to a schedule, working within a budget, and delivering quality.”

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PM is Scalable
No matter the size of the library or project, a good project management process can adapt to fit.
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Benefits of Project Management
Knowing where you are going and when

you have arrived Identify manageable work loads Identify where to focus your efforts Knowing where you stand Maintaining good communication Keeping calm and maintaining consistency Prevent problems and fire drills Interdepartmental cooperation that builds synergies across the organization.
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Project Manager
Project Manager is responsible for

accomplishing the objectives of the project. Establishes priorities and resolves conflicts Establishes project plan Manages to the project plan Takes corrective action if necessary Works directly with project sponsor to ensure project goals are met

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Stakeholders
All who are involved directly and indirectly

with the project including students, faculty, staff, community, vendors. Make a list of all the stakeholders identified so far in the project. You may also want to detail roles of each stakeholder in this section. Understand the Organizational Culture!

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Project Team
Gather required expertise on the team, or

designate experts whom the team can consult, as needed. Not everyone works well in teams but the project team can be a good opportunity to develop team skills. Try to represent major stakeholder groups if possible. Keep the size of the team manageable.

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Project Constraints Model
t Ou e
Ti e m

m co
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Qualit y Cost s

A successful project: Delivers the outcome with an agreed upon quality. quality Does not overrun its end date. date Remains within budget (cost of resources).

Project Management Process
The basic elements of project management

are illustrated in this project life cycle diagram.

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Project Life Cycle
Initiation Phase (Scoping the Plan): identify need,

deliverables & assign priority.

Planning Phase (Developing the Plan): project

specifics, such as tasks, milestones, and associated costs. applies project plan; direct team in producing deliverables; implement approved changes and corrective actions.

Implementation Phase (Executing the Plan):

Monitoring & Controlling Process: monitor the

project’s schedule and budget, making adjustments as necessary, mitigate risk. assessment & wrap-up report, integrating into ongoing operations.

Completion Phase (Closing Out the Project): project

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Communication Plan
Whenever people work together, communication is an essential ingredient for success
A communication plan describes how you're going

to keep the people involved with a project informed.
Communication strategies may be simple or

sophisticated and can range from a weekly status report to a collaborative Web site. At their core, communication plans answer the questions:
 Who needs to know?  What do they need to know?  When do they need to know it?
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Scoping the Project Project Developing the Plan Monitoring & Controlling

Launching the Project Closing Out the Project

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Scoping the Project
State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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Problem/Opportunity
A short, phrased piece of information

covering:

what is to be done

why it is to be done value it provides if it is done

A statement of fact that everyone in

the organization will accept as true.
should be accomplished.

Should communicate why the project

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Constraints achieving this Stage.

• Lack of availability of literature to review.
• improper information recorded about the project area. • Incapability of the observer. • Concealment of Facts/misinformation about the problem.

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Establish the Project Goal
State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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Primary Project Goal
• A project has one primary goal which gives purpose

and direction to the project. • Defines the final deliverable and outcome • States in clear terms what is to be accomplished. • Is a reference point for questions about scope and purpose of the project.

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Define the Project Objectives
State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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Define the Project Objectives S.M.A.R.T.

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Sample of the Objectives
To assess the present education level of the

inhabitants of district Pishin. To work with Community coordinators to develop database of schools in district Pishin. To document the facts and design training program for school teacher.

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Constraints achieving this Stage.
This stage relates to the identification of the

problem, if the problem is clear the objectives could be defined easily. If the person designing the objectives does not have deep knowledge of the problem.  S.M.A.R.T. objectives could not be designed, if the information about the problem is based on factious information.

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Identify the Success Criteria / Deliverables
State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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Success Criteria / Deliverables
• Clearly state the expected impact. • Articulate/quantify outcomes so success

can be measured. • Make a list of the deliverables to be produced by the project. • Describe each deliverable in an unambiguous manner that is understood by the team member responsible for it.
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Constraints achieving this stage.
If the clearly stated expected impacts

have been changed. • If the described deliverables have been changed and created confuse situation to rest of the team members. • One man show in the project will affect in successful achievements of the deliverables.

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State the Problem/ Opportunity Establish the Project Goal Define the Project Objectives Identify the Deliverables / Success Criteria

List Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles

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Assumptions & Risks
• Identify factors that might affect the outcome or

completion of the project. • Used to alert management & the project team to factors that may interfere with project work. • Types of assumptions and risks; • Technological (equipment problems) • Environmental (weather) • Interpersonal (need to rely on student workers) • Cultural (ensure don’t omit consultation with a key
stakeholder group) • Political (the current economic crisis)

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Constraints achieving this stage.
If the Problem, Goal, Objectives, deliverables

are not clear than assumptions and risks could not be properly designed.

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Developing the Plan
Defining the Scoping the Project Project Developing the Plan Monitoring & Controlling

Launching the Plan Closing Out the Project

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Making Time to Plan
Invest in the Planning Process Taking the necessary time to plan & develop each phase of the project is key to a successful project – all the more important if you are new to project management or to the objective of the project
“Just getting on with the project” can be a

recipe for failure

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Pre-Planning “Environmental Scan”
• Brainstorm ideas. • Conduct visits to project site. • Research the topic. • Review professional literature. • Examine best practices to the

similar projects.

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Planning Phase
Identify Project Tasks (WBS) Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Identify Project Tasks (WBS)

Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Breaks the project into chunks of work at a level of detail that meets planning and scheduling needs.

Broader

Narrower

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WBS Preparation
• Characteristics of a good WBS:
• Status/completion are measurable • Clearly defined start/end events • Activity has a deliverable • Time/cost easily estimated • Activity duration within acceptable limits • Work assignments are independent

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Estimate Task Duration
Identify Project Tasks (WBS)

Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Estimate Task Duration
• Estimate task durations based

on:
• • • •

Similarity to other activities. Historical data. Expert advice. Skill levels of staff involved.
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Determining Resource Requirements
Identify Project Tasks (WBS)

Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Determining Resource Requirements
• Identify all the resources required for each

activity.
• Estimate the duration of each task. • Linkage between and among

activities/tasks

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Project Organization & Resources
• People - skills and value • Facilities • Equipment • Money • Materials • Time

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Responsibility Matrix
• Creates accountability by assigning each task to a

person

Task Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3

A x

B x

C

x

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Construct/Analyze Project Network
Identify Project Tasks (WBS)

Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Construct/Analyze Project Network
The project network is the set of project tasks presented in sequence with their dependencies, durations, resources & milestones. Dependencies create the backbone of the project network e.g. Task B cannot begin until task A is complete.
A. Design graphics B. Insert content

The project network or can be represented as a

simple list or visually in chart form.

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Prepare the Schedule/Timeline
Identify Project Tasks (WBS) Estimate Task Duration

Determine Resource Requirements Prepare the Schedule/Timeline Construct/Analyze Project Network

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Project Scheduling
Timeline for the project’s activities in

sequence with:
 Milestones  Actions

 Start & End Dates  Relationship among activities

Types of timelines: text tables,

GANTT charts, Critical paths, PERT charts, etc.
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Critical Path
 A Critical path is the sequence of project network terminal

elements with the longest overall duration , determining the shortest time to complete the project.  The duration of the critical path determines the duration of the entire project. Any delay of a terminal element on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date (i.e. there is no slack on the critical path ).  A project can have several, parallel critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the total durations just shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical path.  The critical path method was invented by the DuPont corporation and originally considered only logical dependencies among terminal elements.

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Timeline in Tabular Form
Good approach for schedules without many

sets of activities in complex relationships.
Does not require specialised skills in

preparing GANTT charts, etc.

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GANTT Chart
• Visual scheduling tool • Graphical representation of

information in WBS • Show dependencies between tasks, personnel, and other resources allocations • Track progress towards completion
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Sample GANTT Chart

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Critical Path
•Longest pathway to your goal. •Know your critical path and manage to it.

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PERT Charts
 Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review

Technique  designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a project.  Used more in R&D-type projects where time, rather than cost, is the major factor.  PERT is intended for very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine projects.

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Project Planning Tools
Project software Post it notes on wall 3 x 5 cards in colors for each task Chalk board

Document everything!!

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Risk Management Planning
Identify risks and potential obstacles to the

project that: could significantly impact on its completion are reasonably likely to occur
Incorporate steps in plan to mitigate risk

and avoid obstacles.
Monitor the risks you've identified and

watch for new risks that may arise.
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Achieve Balance between Planning and Flexibility
The project plan needs to be clear and firm in

order to avoid ambiguity but flexible enough to accommodate changes and unanticipated events.

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Launching the Project

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Defining the Scoping the Project Project Developing the Plan Monitoring & Controlling

Launching the Project Closing Out the Project

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Launching the Project
Communication Kickoff meeting with project team (& perhaps

major stakeholders.
Regular team meetings to review progress.

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Defining the Scoping the Project Project Developing the Plan Monitoring & Controlling

Launching the Project Closing Out the Project

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Monitoring & Controlling
Monitor Status - Review Meetings Manage Change & Resolve Conflicts Analyze Variances Plan and Take Corrective Action Report Status to Stakeholders

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Defining the Scoping the Project Project Developing the Plan Monitoring & Controlling

Launching the Project Closing Out the Project

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Closing Out the Project
Complete Closing Activities (acknowledge

your team & celebrate successes)
Document Best Practices Close the Project Hand off service/support to operational units
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Project Closing
What worked well and what could have been

improved Would they want to do it again, if so, how often and in what form. Final report to the project’s sponsor.

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 Theory of Constraints (TOC) Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his

1984 book titled The Goal.

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Theory of Constraints (TOC)
Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an overall

management philosophy introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his 1984 book titled The Goal.  The title comes from the contention that any manageable system is limited in achieving more of its goal by a very small number of constraints, and that there is always at least one constraint. The TOC process seeks to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around it, through the use of the Five Focusing Steps.

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The five focusing steps
 Identify the constraint (the resource or policy that prevents 

 

the organization from obtaining more of the goal). Decide how to exploit the constraint (make sure the constraint's time is not wasted doing things that it should not do) Subordinate all other processes to above decision (align the whole system or organization to support the decision made above) Elevate the constraint (if required or possible, permanently increase capacity of the constraint; "buy more") If, as a result of these steps, the constraint has moved, return to Step 1. Don't let inertia/unwillingness become the constraint.

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Usually, the programmer is the constraint. Work

piles up in front of them, people behind them are idle a lot of the time. Let the resources who have excess capacity spend some of that capacity to help to remove the Constraint. We can raise the throughput rate of the Constraint.  After improving the performance of the Programmer, we can't let up. There's always another bottleneck! In the simulation, the constraint can shift to the Designer. So, we start again from the beginning...
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