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The selection of supporting arrangement is based on
Piping Stress analysis. Piping Stress Analysis is carried
out to 1. Keep STRESSES in the piping within its allowable
2. Keep REACTIONS due to the piping on equipment
nozzles within their allowable values.
3. Provide SUITABLE SUPPORTS to take the DEAD
WEIGHT of the piping while providing free movement

Static analysis
This consists of first a free Thermal Run and a Weight distribution
Run.followed by Hanger Selection. After that the final Thermal Run
with selected hanger and all restraints in place is taken. The hangers are
selected based on the thermal movements and the the pipe weight.
Analysis is done in such a way that the reactions at the terminals are
kept within their allowable values. Restraints are used to help achieve
this as well restrict undue pipe movements. Hangers are selected with
margin in movement on both top and bottom.
In all KWU sets the analysis is done in such a way so that no pipe
weight is transferred to the turbine and valve nozzles. To ensure this as
well as to take care of the actual pipe weight (due to pipe tolerances)
with respect to the theoretical weights the piping is floated on unlocked
spring hangers before connecting to turbine nozzles during erection.

The various static analysis outputs generated by us are Piping stress check as per codes
Hanger and support tables
Forces and moments table consisting of Weight
Hot ( immediate Hot)
Hot (safety valves blowing)
Cold Relaxed
Cold Relaxed (with upper casing removed, in case of split casing)

The analysis is done up to the Turbine CG so as to facilitate stability

calculations. The reactions at the turbine are limited by two criterion,
the turbine stability and the nozzle strength.

Dynamic analysis
We carry out a Dynamic Analysis of MS, HRH and CRH piping because of quick
closing of ESV & CV in MS piping and IV & CV in HRH piping. A pressure shock
wave is generated in the piping when the valve closes fast which travels at the speed
of sound in the piping. Depending on the actual valve closing time, the mass flow
through the valves and the piping lengths the forcing functions are worked out in
each leg. With these forcing functions a vibration analysis of the piping is carried
out. Wherever found necessary shock absorbers are introduced to the piping system
so as not to disturb the static analysis as well as satisfy dynamic requirements.
The analysis gives us the stresses in the piping, forces and moments at the
equipments and restraints and the deflection of the piping at various points.
The hangers are then once again checked to determine whether the earlier margins
provided during static analysis were adequate. They should not top out or bottom out
during dynamic conditions also.
The restraints are finally designer to cater for static + dynamic loads.
The additional reactions at equipment nozzles due to dynamic conditions are also
taken into consideration

1. Primary stresses
2. Secondary stresses

Primary stresses are those stresses caused by load that
act continuously. They are not self limiting and if
yield stress is reached yielding will occur. Primary
stresses for which the piping is usually analyzed are
Dead weight
Occasional loadings such as earthquake and steam
hammer (earthquake in case the plant is located in an
earthquake prone area)

Secondary stresses are stresses which are
self limiting and failure occurs by repeated
application. Thermal stresses are secondary
stresses and failure occurs through repeated
cycles and subsequent fatigue.

Stress comparison as per code ANSI B31.1

Longitudinal Stresses due to Sustained Loads
Sp + Sw <= Sh
Longitudinal Stress due to Occasional Loads
Sp + Sw + So <= kSh , k= 1.15 for duration < 10 % of op. time
k= 1.20 for duration < 1 % of op. time
Thermal Expansion Stress Range
Se <= Sa
Sa = Allowable Stress Range = f (1.25 Sc +0.25 Sh)
Sustained + Thermal Expansion Stress
Sp + Sw + Se <= (Sh +Sa)

Hanger selections are made based on static analysis, and then finally
checked for dynamic deflections as well.
Variable springs are usually selected for deflections of up to 40 mm.
Beyond 40 mm Constant Load hangers are selected.
Variability of load for variable load hangers are usually kept within 25%.
In Constant load hangers the variability is theoretically zero.
Hanger Loads consists of pipe wt, media wt, insulation wt and wt of
hanger components such clamps,channels,tie rods etc.
Variable Load hangers are selected from Load Tables given in the
Hanger catalogue by Piping Center. While selecting springs, care is taken
to see that top and bottom margins are available in all operating
conditions such as Cold, Hot and Cold Relaxed. Care is also taken to see
that dynamic deflections are within the top and bottom margins provided.

Constant Load hangers are selected using Selection data charts of

PC. Here margins are checked for Cold and Hot conditions and also
for dynamic movements.
Rigid supports are provided judiciously in the system making the
system as rigid as possible while still keeping stresses in the piping as
well as reactions at the terminal points within limits. Rigid supports
may be tie rod hangers, struts or restraints made of pipe
Shock Absorbers are only used when it becomes absolutely
necessary, to absorb the pressure shock wave generated due to quick
closing of ESV & CV and IV & CV. The loads are decided based on
Dynamic Analysis results