You are on page 1of 23

Protein

NTN 1232

Learning objectives
• List down the essential and
nonessential AA
• Describe the different sources of
proteins
• Explain the methods of measuring
protein quality
• Explain the health effects of protein

Introduction • Involve in body structure formation Eg : Muscles. cell plasma membrane.N.O • Provide 4 kcal/g • Amino acids (AA) link together by peptide bonds to form proteins • Two types of AA two types – Essential & non essential .H. nails • Contain C.

hair • Hereditary function – Histone in DNA • Regulatory functions .Functions of proteins • Structure formation – muscle. nails.enzymes • Acid base balance • Fluid balance • Immune functions – Antibodies • Provide energy – 4 kcal at starvation .hormones • Catalytic functions .

Endopeptidase Exopeptidase. di & tri peptidases End products – AA. or enter to blood . pepsisn.Protein digestion and absorption • • • • • • • • Start in stomach Complete in Small intestine Trypsin. fat. small peptides Final digestion in SI cells AA travels to liver Produce proteins. glucose.

Protein denaturation • • • • • • Destruction of protein structure By HCL in stomach Important for protein digestion Accessible to photolytic enzymes Caused by acids. base. heat Cooking is important for protein digestion .

AA that can not be synthesized in the body in sufficient amount to meet physiological requirements. • Isoleucine • Leucine • Lysine • Methionine • Phenylalanine • Threonine • Tryptophane • Valine • Histidine – For small children .Essential AA • Essential AA: .

Non essential AA AA that can be synthesized in the body in sufficient amount to meet physiological requirements Glutamine • Glycine • Proline • Serine • Arginine • Alanine • Aspartic acids • Glutamic acid .

Conditionally essential AA • Some AA become essential when there are conditions in the body that prevent the biochemical conversion of one amino acid into another • Glutamine (at ill condition) • Tyrosine (from Phenylalanine) .

Type of proteins • Animal proteins • Plant proteins .

meat.Animal proteins • • • • • High in quality Complete proteins Provide all essential AA Eg : Fish. eggs. milk Absorption is high .

Pulses. legumes • Less absorption . nuts.Plant proteins • • • • Lower in quality Incomplete Not having all essential AA Need to combine food items to make the diet complete • Eg: .

Protein quality • Food proteins that provide an unbalanced combination of amino acids are poor quality proteins. • Limiting amino acids – An essential amino acids supplied in less than the amount needed to support protein synthesis is called limiting amino acids .

but soy proteins are complete . (except gelatin – lack tryptophan) • Eg – animal protein.• Complete proteins – Protein contain all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amount as human being require.

.Measurements of protein quality • Biological value – amount of protein nitrogen that is retained for growth and maintenance. as a percentage of the protein nitrogen that has been digested and absorbed.

• Amino acids scoring – Comparison of a protein with reference protein • Digestibility – A measure of the amount of AA absorbed from a given protein intake .

25 g protein . recovering from illness • . injuries. Zero • + ve = Growth. burns. pregnant mothers. wasting (body protein breakdown for energy) • 1 g N = 6. infections. among children.Nitrogen balance • Body maintain same amount of protein in tissues for day today works • N balance = N intake – N losses • Losses = Urine + feces + skin • N balance = +ve.ve = starving. -ve.

Protein turnover • Constant degradation and synthesis of body proteins are known as protein turnover • Protein in tissues constantly made and break down • Free AA comes to circulation • Some recycled for other proteins • Some use for energy production .

increase Ca excretion • Obesity – protein rich foods are rich in fats .AA homocystein .Health effect of proteins • Heart diseases . kidney • Osteoporosis .Saturated fats • Cancers – colon. breast.

protein.Protein energy malnutrition • Marasmus . vitamins and minerals .Result from sever deprivation or impaired absorption of energy.

• Kwashiorkor – result ether from inadequate protein intake or from infections • Proteins that maintain fluid balance diminish .

Activity • List down the consequences of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus .