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Man has bones and

muscles

Cell has a

cytoskeleton
made of protein fibers
and tubules

Cytoskeleton
• A web of proteins inside the cell that anchors the
organelles
• Acts as a skeleton &
a muscle
• Helps the cell keep
its shape
• Also helps other cells,
like bacteria, move

Cytoskeleton
• Three main types:
– Microtubules
– Microfilaments
– Intermediate
Filaments

The Cytoskeleton • Actin microfilaments are contractile • Intermediate filaments provide shape • Microtubules help cells divide and provide highways on which vesicles can travel • Vesicles.small membrane bound containers .

The Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane Actin subunits Microfilaments Intermediate Filaments Mitochondrion Microtubule Endoplasmic Reticulum Tubulin subunits .

Cytoskeleton • Protein fibers – Cell shape. microfilaments & microtubules • Amoeboid movement • Muscle contraction • Cell migration during development – Organelle movement & suspension • Cyclosis. networks of intermediate filaments – Cell movement. pathways for vesicle migration – Cell division .

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LE 6-20 Microtubule Microfilaments 0.25 µm .

plus-end directed • Dynein.google.co m/videosearch? q=kinesin&hl=en&emb =0# .minus-end directed • Both can carry vesicles • http://video.Motor proteins literally walk on microtubules • Kinesin.

LE 6-21a ATP Vesicle Receptor for motor protein Motor protein (ATP powered) Microtubule of cytoskeleton .

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25 µm .LE 6-21b Microtubule Vesicles 0.

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Centrioles • Only animal cells • Made of protein TUBULIN – What else is made of tubulin? • Near nucleus • Help organize cell division .

25 µm Longitudinal section Microtubules of one centriole Cross section of the other centriole .LE 6-22 Centrosome Microtubule Centrioles 0.

more whip-like • Filled with microtubules – 9 pairs in periphery. or locomotion • Two functionally different types – Cilia: numerous.Cilia and Flagella • Tubular extensions of plasma membrane • Movement of fluid. fewer. 2 singlets in center – “9+2” arrangement (for eukaryotes) . synchronized – Flagella: longer. paddle-like.

S.Cilia & Flagella X. 2 1 “Sheath” T. . Shaft Cell Membrane Base (a Centriole) 5 X.E.M.S.M.E. 3 Paramecium 4 T.

LE 6-23a Direction of swimming Motion of flagella 5 µm .

LE 6-23b Direction of organism’s movement Direction of active stroke Motion of cilia Direction of recovery stroke 15 µm .

LE 6-24 0.1 µm Triplet Cross section of basal body Activity: Cilia & Flagella .5 µm Outer microtubule doublet Dynein arms Central microtubule Plasma membrane Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Radial spoke 0.1 µm Microtubules Plasma membrane Basal body 0.

Basal Body . l. x. Cell Membrane Microtubule Doublets Dynein Arms Central Singlets Microtubule Triplets Basal Body.s. Flagellum Parts Shaft.s.Shaft.s. x.

LE 6-25a Microtubule doublets Dynein arm Dynein “walking” ATP .

LE 6-25b Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Anchorage in cell Effect of cross-linking proteins Wavelike motion ATP .

M.Movement of Flagella Water Water Corkscrew Movement Whipping Movement (Pulls) (Pushes) Scanning E. of sperm on egg .

of a ciliate .M.Movement of Cilia Power Stroke Water Recovery Stroke Scanning E.

Table 6-1b .

LE 6-26 Microvillus Plasma membrane Microfilaments (actin filaments) Intermediate filaments 0.25 µm .

LE 6-27a Muscle cell Actin filament Myosin filament Myosin arm Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction .

LE 6-27b Cortex (outer cytoplasm): gel with actin network Inner cytoplasm: sol with actin subunits Extending pseudopodium Amoeboid movement .

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LE 6-27c Nonmoving cytoplasm (gel) Chloroplast Streaming cytoplasm (sol) Vacuole Parallel actin filaments Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells Cell wall .

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Table 6-1c .

LE 6-10 Nucleus Nucleus 1 µm Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nuclear pore Pore complex Rough ER Surface of nuclear envelope Ribosome 1 µm 0.25 µm Close-up of nuclear envelope Pore complexes (TEM) Nuclear lamina (TEM) .