You are on page 1of 26

Introduction to

Public Health
Faculty of Dentistry- Taibah University
Introduction to Dental Public Health (PDS 111)


is a state of complete physical,
mental and social well being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity

SPECTRUM OF HEALTH Ideal health Positive health Negative or marginal In apparent disease Apparent disease Death health .

Ideal health: This conforms to the WHO definition of health .

 This definition indicates that health is a positive dynamic interaction between the individual and his surroundings with proper acclimatization to maintain health.Positive health Perfect continuing adjustment between the individual and the environment.  .

 . he looks healthy.Negative or marginal health: If the individual is in a state of equilibrium. but he has no ability to adjust himself to his surroundings. then he is going to fall ill on the slightest adverse stimulus.

 . Unapparent disease (also called pre-clinical) is not recognized by the individual.In-apparent disease: Disease is a state of departure from normal to the extent that the ordinary physiologic processes of the tissues and organs are not enough to restore the body to its normal functions. but can be discovered by examination and screening tests.

Apparent disease: The individual is aware that s/he is suffering from an illness.  . whether s/he seeks medical care or not.

and demos = people) Epidemiology is the subject concerned with study of what happens to people when involved by disease. and dynamics of diseases in human populations. whether communicable or non-communicable It is defined as the study of distribution. frequency.Epidemiology (Epi = on. determinants. .

Factors affecting the occurrence of a disease Human being Environment Causative (host factors) Agent .

Host Factors Heredity and genetic factors Age and sex Health status Previous immunologic experience Physiologic state Life style: e. smoking.g. Socio-economic status .

Environmental Factors The physical environment The Biologic environment The social/cultural environment .

Disease Causation and Epidemiological Triad: .

Risk Factors and Etiological Factors: .

Simple disease caustaion & Multiple risk factors .

... .g. Genetic agents: as in Down's syndrome. Physical agents: Excessive heat or cold . e. galactosemia.. Functional: Dysfunction of certain organs or gland may produce disease. irradiation..Causative Agent: Biologic agents Nutritional agents Chemical agents: Examples are poisons.. phenylketonuria. .g. Metabolic agents: e.. electricity. Mechanical agents: causing injuries or accidents. and even some drugs. Diabetes Mellitus. insecticides.

. more prone to a specific disease due to the presence of a certain factor which is not the direct causative agent.Risk Factors: These are factors that make an individual. a family. a group of individuals. The risk factors are related to the host or his/her self specific environment. or a community. The causative agent may be known or unknown.

PUBLIC HEALTH Public health is "the art and science of promoting health. which has almost the same meaning "public health can be defined as the combination of sciences. preventing disease and increasing the span of healthy life through organized efforts of the society". Another definition. skills and beliefs that are directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people." .

Essential public health functions includes: Protection of the environment Health education Health legislation. plans and supports the provision of health care services to the population . children. and health regulations Prevention and control of communicable diseases Care for special groups as mothers. and workers in certain hazardous occupations Assessment of health needs.

Community Health / Community Medicine: Is the application of the principles of public health to communities. culture. . A community is a group of individuals sharing an identity. and operates through common institutions and organizations. A health Center in a rural or an urban area is responsible for the health of the community they serve within their catchment area.

and individual levels.Preventive Medicine: is the science and art of application of the different levels of prevention at the population. community. .


Levels of Prevention: Primary  Health Promotion  Specific Prevention Secondary  Early detection of diseases  Prompt and appropriate treatment Tertiary  Rehabilitation .

Patterns of curative care: Emergency care Episodic care Continuous care Terminal care .

other tests Differential diagnosis Community diagnosis & priority setting Resources Available therapy Management Treatment Evaluation status Follow-up of patient Health & Health related services Health programs Assessment of health . mortality Investigations Laboratory tests.Comparison between clinical medicine and community medicine Clinical Medicine Community Medicine _________________________________________________________________ Objective Patient cure Health improvement Information Complaint. Survey studies Diagnosis X-ray. history and related factors morbidity.