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Fundamentals of Casting

Casting, one of the oldest manufacturing processes, dates
back to 4000 B.C. when copper arrowheads were made.
Casting processes basically involve the introduction of a
molten metal into a mold cavity, where upon solidification,
the metal takes on the shape of the mold cavity.
Simple and complicated shapes can be made from any
metal that can be melted.
Example of cast parts: frames, structural parts, machine
components, engine blocks, valves, pipes, statues,
ornamental artifacts…..
Casting sizes range form few mm (teeth of a zipper) to
10 m (propellers of ocean liners).


2 . must be properly designed and controlled to avoid defects. • Mold removal. • Melting the metal with acceptable quality and temp. cleaning and inspection operations.Casting Processes • Preparing a mold cavity of the desired shape with proper allowance for shrinkage. • Pouring the metal into the cavity and providing means for the escape of air or gases. • Solidification process. • Finishing.

Sand Casting Terminology 3 .

Sand Casting Process 4 .

5 .Solidification Time Solidification time = C(volume/surface area)2 Where C is a constant that depends on mold material and thickness. metal characteristics and temperature.

Solidification Time Sphere. cube and a cylinder with the same volume 6 .

during solidification. 7 .Casting Defects Hot tearing – hot tearing. cracking. occurs if casting is restrained from shrinking.

8 .Casting Defects These defects can be eliminated by proper mold preparation. casting design and pouring process.

Defects such as voids. cracks and porosity are created.Casting Defects Hot spots – thick sections cool slower than other sections causing abnormal shrinkage. 9 .

Casting Defects and Design Consideration 10 .

Design Consideration 11 .

Higher pressure needed High production rates. high-melting alloys. zinc. tin. low-melting alloys. aluminum. good strength.Die Casting Hot chamber. Cold chamber. copper. 12 . lead. good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. and good quality parts.

Centrifugal Casting True centrifugal casting Centrifuging 13 .

good surface finish. 14 . fine microstructure.Squeeze Casting Cast parts have good mechanical properties. good dimensional accuracy.

The pattern is dried at 400 oF and the two halves are assembled and molten metal is poured into the cavity.) Ceramic Molding Similar to plaster molding. 15 . The process produces fine detail with good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. except it uses ceramic as a mold which is suitable for high temp. applications.Precision Casting Plaster Molding Plaster of Paris (gypsum) is used as the mold material. Used to cast aluminum. Mixture of zircon (ZrSiO4). aluminum oxide (Al2O3). zinc and copper-based alloys (low-melting temp. silica (SiO2) and other bounding agents. other components are added to improve the strength and reduce the setting time.

Fabrication of Plastics Injection Molding 16 .

Fabrication of Plastics Hot-Compression Molding Vacuum Forming 17 .

18 . Minimum recommended.01-. up to . • Round interior and exterior corners to . .025 in or .Design Considerations • Wall thickness should be kept uniform if possible. prevents an edge from chipping. Non uniform wall thickness could lead to warpage and dimensional variations.65 mm.015 in radius (min.).125 for large parts.