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CHAPTER 3

EXCRETION

INTRODUCTION
Many

chemical
reactions in the body
produce waste
products.
The body needs to
remove these waste
products to stay
healthy.

Like rubbish,
waste
products are
toxic. We
need to
remove
them from
our body

DEFINITION
The

process of removing waste
products, produced during
chemical processes in cells is
called EXCRETION.
Excretion helps to remove wastes
produced by cells.
If wastes are not removed, toxic
substances build up and these
can damage organs in the body.
This can lead to death.

mineral salts) Organ : Lungs Products : By Respiration (water. urea. Organ : Skin Products : By Sweating (water.Excretory organs and excretory products. mineral salts) . urea. carbon dioxide) Organ : Kidneys Products : By Urination (water.

is urea and water. (major organic component found in human urine) Urine. and that is what comes out of . and it comes in particular from our kidney.What is urea and urine??? Urea are waste from your body.

Example: . (respiration)  CO₂ Carbon dioxide from respiration must be removed quickly because a high level of this gas will increase the acidity of the blood.The importance of excretion Helps to maintain a healthy body.

if left to accumulate in the body. will become toxic. chemical composition and pH in the body system. Example: (urination)  water and mineral salts Helps to maintain the balance of water content.The importance of excretion (sweating)  urea Urea . Example: .

Question And Answer .

The accumulation of excess urea can harm our body.Why do we need to excrete urea? Urea is formed from excess amino acids. .

.What if there is too much carbon dioxide in our blood? A high level of carbon dioxide can reduce the pH of blood and make it acidic.

Why does our body need to maintain the salt content in blood? Excessive mineral salts can increase the concentration of blood and make .

Excretion controls my body temperature. . Excretion helps to regulate and balance the level of water content in our body.After the sweat evaporates from the skin. I feel cooler.

water and mineral salts.THE URINARY SYSTEM IN HUMANS What does the human urinary system consist of? Human urinary system is made up of: Kidneys Bladder Ureter Urethra These part helps to remove waste products like urea. .

The Human Urinary System .

Kidney Excretory organ that removes wastes like urea. water and mineral salts from the blood into the urine.Function. Urethra Tube that carries urine from the bladder for removal Ureter Tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder Bladder Temporary storage for the urine before removal .

Structure of the kidney Bean shape d 2 parts : cortex and medulla Kidne ys Size of a fist Outer transparent coat of kidney : fairly tough  capsule .

(outer darker protective part) Cortex Makes up about 1/3 of the kidney kidney Inner layer Medulla Forms several pyramids which open into a saclike cavity called pelvis .Kidney When the kidney is cut longitudinally. it is seen to consist of 2 parts.

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.Kidney From the pelvis. a long narrow tube called the ureter. leads to the bladder.

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Others: Regulate the water and chemical balance in the body.Function of the Kidney Most important function: To filter blood and remove urea. excess mineral salts and water to form urine. .

reabsorption will be less. When body system lacks water.Continue… The amount of water that is reabsorbed depends on the amount of water required in the body. The urine produced will be diluted. If the body has too much water. more water will be reabsorbed .

. it means that your body lacks water.Q: Why does our urine sometimes appear dark yellowish? A: Well. The urine becomes more concentrated because more water is reabsorbed into the blood.

we need to drink plenty of water every day. . drugs and alcohol that can harm the kidneys. To maintain healthy kidneys. sugar. Therefore we must look after the kidneys.Importance of maintaining healthy kidneys We must avoid taking excessive salt. Kidneys excrete harmful substances from our body.

However. kidney failure can be treated through dialysis or kidney transplant. failure of both can result in death. .How can people with kidney failure be saved? Kidney failure is a common disease nowadays. Although we can live with only one kidney.

. Dialysis is a technique of separating particles of different sizes in a liquid mixture. In dialysis.Dialysis Common treatment for kidney failure and is carried out with the is dialysis? use of a What machine. blood is filtered through an artificial membrane in the dialysis machine.

How does a dialysis machine work? Works like an artificial kidney. Blood flows out from the artery Waste products diffuse from the blood into the dialysis fluid through the pores in the tubing The purified blood returns to the vein of the patient .

Dialysis does not cure the damaged kidney . 2 or 3 times a week. Dialysis not cheap.A patient’s blood need to pass through the dialysis machine many times to make sure all wastes are removed. The patient must be connected to the machine for about 5 hours.

Excretio n in Plants .

Shedding flowers in d ite es s po leav e D he t Simple diffusion Shedding bark Retained in the plant body Diffusion into the soil She ddin g leav es Storage in specialized cells .