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Melanoma

What is Melanoma?
Melanoma is a very serious form of

skin cancer.
Melanoma is cancer of the
melanocytes.
Melanocytes are located in the
Stratum Basale and produce melanin.

Melanocytes
When skin is exposed to sunlight,
melanocytes produce more pigment, causing
the skin to tan.
 Sometimes, clusters of melanocytes form
noncancerous (benign) growths called
moles.
 Moles can be either flat or raised, round or
oval, and are smaller than a pencil eraser.
– Generally harmless, but can become cancerous

.

. They often can be removed and. The mass of extra cells forms a growth or tumor. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. in most cases.What is cancer? Cancer is abnormal cell growth. Benign tumors are not cancer. they do not come back.

 Cells can also break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream. the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the original tumor.  When cancer spreads (metastasizes) to other parts of the body.Malignant Tumors  Malignant tumors are cancerous. .  Cells can invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Types of Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma .

.Melanoma Although melanoma accounts for only about 5% of all skin cancer cases. it causes most skin cancer-related deaths.

oncologychannel. (Sun exposure)  8% are due to chromosomal abnormalities  About 2% are unknown www.Causes of Melanoma  90% of all melanomas are linked to UV radiation.com .

Risk Factors  Family history of melanoma  Dysplastic nevi (noncancerous. light eyes  Excessive use of tanning beds . blistering sunburns  Freckling tendency  Fair skin. but unusual- looking moles)  Previous melanoma  Many nevi (ordinary moles): more than 50  Severe.

Signs and Symptoms  Melanoma can appear suddenly as a new mole. melanomas are often found between the shoulders and hips. or it can develop slowly in or near an existing mole. or the head and neck area. melanoma often develops on the lower legs as well as between the shoulders and hips. .  In women.  In men.  It may also appear under the fingernails or toenails or on the palms or soles.

brown. tan.Signs and Symptoms cont…  A skin growth that increases in size and looks pearly. black. erode. or multicolored. . scab. hurt. gets larger. red. pink. translucent. or is bigger than a pencil eraser.  A spot or growth that continues to itch. becomes irregular in shape. crust. or bleed.  A mole that changes in color or in texture.

or heals and then reopens.Signs and Symptoms cont… An open sore that lasts for more than 4 weeks. and rough and may produce a pricking or tender sensation. dry. . A scaly or crusty bump that is horny.

C                                                Color varied from one area to another. shades of tan and brown. red or blue. . D                                                          Diameter larger than 6mm as a rule (diameter of a pencil eraser).ABCD’s of Melanoma A                                                          Asymmetry--one half unlike the other half. black. sometimes white. B                                                          Border irregular--scalloped or poorly circumscribed border.

ABCD’s .

If melanomas of this type are diagnosed early  minor surgery is all that is required. .Melanoma Early Melanoma is totally curable.

Spreads across the surface of the skin. Only when it invades deeper does it become dangerous .Most common form of melanoma.Melanoma Surface Melanoma.

  The risk of death from this melanoma increases rapidly as the tumor buries deeper in the skin. . arising as a small lump on pure melanoma tissue in the skin.Melanoma Nodular Melanoma -The most dangerous form of melanoma.

Virtually all of these cases can be cured. Treatment is by surgery. this tumor is found only on the top layer of the epidermis. .Treatment Stage 0 — Also called melanoma in situ.Stages of Melanoma .

Treatment Stage IA — The tumor is low-risk.75 mm in thickness. The tumor has not spread to the lymph nodes or distant organs.Stages of Melanoma . . Treatment is by surgery. and/or has not penetrated to the dermis. less than .

Stages of Melanoma . Treatment is by surgery.5 mm and 4 mm and/or has penetrated the deep dermis.Treatment Stage IIA — The melanoma is between 1. .

Treatment is by surgery.Stages of Melanoma . .Treatment Stage IIB — The tumor is thicker than 4 mm and/or invades the subcutaneous fat. Additional tumors called “satellites” may be found within 2 centimeters of the original tumor.

Treatment Stage III — Melanoma has spread to the nearest lymph node.Stages of Melanoma . Treatment is by surgery. Adjacent lymph nodes often removed. .

Stages of Melanoma . or brain.Treatment Stage IV — The melanoma has spread to other organs such as the lung. liver. Treatment may include surgery and chemotherapy . or to distant areas of skin or lymph nodes.

but melanoma diagnosed at a late stage is more likely to spread and cause death.Facts  One person each hour dies from melanoma.  Affects all age groups and is one of the most common cancers in young adults  Melanoma diagnosed at an early stage can usually be cured.  The Key is PREVENTION! .  Melanoma afflicts nearly 45.000 Americans yearly.

and to skin cancer. to sunburn.Ultraviolet Rays UV-A Penetrate more deeply into the skin's layers than UV-B rays. These rays contribute to premature aging and wrinkling of the skin. .

UV Radiation UV-B -Stronger than UV-A. at higher altitudes. and closer to the equator. . Most common cause of sunburning. can contribute to the premature aging of the skin and can cause cataracts. are more intense in summer months.

although the strongest and most dangerous. are normally filtered by the ozone layer and do not reach the Earth. .UV Radiation UV-C These rays.

How much UV reaches me? Time of Day: UV is greatest between 10 AM and 3 PM .

Altitude: The air is cleaner and thinner at higher altitudes. . UV exposure is greater in the mountains than in the valleys. therefore.How much UV reaches me? Where You Live: UV is strongest at the equator and gets weaker as you move towards the Earth's poles.

Water reflects an additional 5% of the sun's rays back on you. and fog. You can get sunburned when you are in the water . .Sun Facts  Protecting your skin during the first 18 years of life can     reduce the risk of some types of skin cancer by up to 78%. Severe sunburn during the first 15 years of life can double the risk of skin cancer. mist. You can get a sunburn even on a cloudy day! Up to 80% of the sun's rays can penetrate light clouds. Even dry surfaces reflect the sun's rays! Concrete reflects 10% to 12% of the sun's rays.

pavement. Wear a sunscreen with a minimun of 15 SPF.Sun Protection Factor Number= amount of time you can spend in the sun without getting burned. 2. cement      and snow doubles the amount of ultraviolet exposure.Burn time 50 minutes . water. UV reflection from sand.Burn 10 minutes Ex SPF. even on cloudy days.5.Prevention  1. Ex No sunscreen. SPF.