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Test, Non-test

,
Measurement,
Assessment, and
Evaluation
CHAPTER 1
REPORTED BY: ELLAINE REBECCA LIMOSINERO

Introduction

The evolving views in the use of the educational assessment are
most probably the result of the rising demand of an outcome-based
evaluation.

Teachers must objectively see that their students concretely
manifest the expected outcomes of instruction.

These teachers can be discover that the noble qualities of
students, such as multiple skills and knowledge, and
understanding of learning, can be developed and manifested
through the integrated approach of instructional and assessment.

Introduction

They should consider that the traditional use of examination and
summative test is not the sole assessment approach if they are
to consider the context of outcome-based evaluation.

It has been a common view among educators that the terms
test, non-test, measurement, assessment, and evaluation relate
with one another.

Test is a device used to measure what the students have
learned before, during, or after classroom activities.

The process of attaching qualitative value of test results is a
function of evaluation.

The Recent Concepts of
Assessment and Evaluation

Dr. Roberto N. Padua, the former Executive Director of Teacher
Education Council (TEC)

“teaching today is a far more complicated profession than it was a
couple of decades ago. The dynamically changing pace of
development in science and technology has brought about
corresponding changes in the way we view teaching. Thus, while
earlier on, we have always been content with testing and measuring
student’s cognitive skills through teacher-made tests, today, we not
only test to measure cognitive development but also the affective
and psychomotor development of the learners as well. The teacher,
therefore, is expected to be fully conversant of the measurement and
assessment procedures that underpin testing in the three domains:
cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

The Recent Concepts of
Assessment and Evaluation

Dr. Padua points out that all institutions of learning should aspire to have a
very comprehensive evaluation program.

This necessities the consideration of all aspects of students’ learning :
Cognitive, affective, psychomotor.

There is also a need to combine traditional and nontraditional or authentic
assessment method to provide the teachers with a very clear picture of
student’s educational performances.

The concept of assessment is more appropriate that measurement because it
requires the use of all means, methods, and approaches to understand
students’ scholastic performance.

The combined use of test and non-test as assessment tools is very important
because it can cover all domains of learning.

A. Test

Test is a set of questions with an accepted set of presumably correct
answers, designed to gather information about some individual
characteristics, like scholastic achievement. (Posner, 1995)

Scholastic achievement test can be used to gather data about what
the students have learned in the school activities over a period of
time.

Test is a device used to indirectly measure the intangible aspects of
students’ life and to gather information about student’s learning
progress.

The scores gathered though the use of this device must be analyzed
and evaluated.

Test

It can be influenced by some factors that contribute to errors in
gathering valid and reliable in information, we can call this phenomenon
as measurement error.

Teachers should critically analyze the way tests are prepared and
administered, as well, as the way test results are interpreted.

We are concerned that test users often uncritically accept test scores.
These concerns us, for three reasons. (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2000)

Test are only tools, and tools can be appropriately used unintentionally
misused, and intentionally abused.

Test, like other tools can be well-designed or poorly designed.

Both poorly designed and well-designed tools in the hands of ill-trained
users can be dangerous.

Test

Classroom teachers can appropriately use tests for classroom
evaluation.

Most of the test used for classroom evaluation are taken verbatim
from the test – a clear violation of the principles of test
construction.

As the length of a teacher’s experience increases, he is expected
to have developed expertise in test construction.

Teachers, as users of tests, should be guided by sound principles
in their construction and utilization to assess students’ academic
achievements.

Test can either be written, oral, or performed.

Test

Critically evaluated test results should be combined with results
from a variety of other measurement procedures
 Performance

and portfolio assessments

 Observations
 Checklists
 Rating

scales

These results should be integrated with relevant background and
contextual information
 Reading

level

 Language
 Cultural

proficiency

considerations

Test

Critically evaluated test results should be combined with results
from a variety of other measurement procedures
 Performance

and portfolio assessments

 Observations
 Checklists
 Rating

scales

These results should be integrated with relevant background and
contextual information
 Reading

level

 Language
 Cultural

proficiency

considerations

B. Non-test

Non-tests are devices that do not force students to give their
responses.

These are usually based on teacher’s direct observation as students
perform the assigned tasks.

To make the observation objective, the teacher should develop valid
and reliable non-test instruments like
 Observation
 Rating

checklist

scaled

 Semantic

differentials

 Anecdotal

record, etc

Non-test

If non-test are use to supplement the information gathered through
the use of tests, then the teacher can have a comprehensive view
about the quality of students’ learning progress.

The most important focus of classroom assessment activities are
students’ learning experiences.

Non-test

The following are the assessment strategies similar to some teaching
strategies.

1.

Anecdotal Record – Every student has a story to tell. However, an
anecdote focuses only on the unique experience showing attitude
that needs some modification or intervention.

2.

Checklist - the teacher formulates a list of objectives that students
need to master; he just check off the objective that the student has
mastered.

3.

Daily Assignment – students have time to spend for reinforced
learning at home or even in school during vacant periods.

Non-test
4.

Debates – the students are expected to learn better in a social
setting. During class activities, when there are two opposing views about
an issue, a debate can be organized where students take opposing positions
on a topic and depend their side.

5.

Demonstration – students can present a visual enactment of a particular
skill or activity.

6.

Games - students can engage themselves in enjoyable activities without
fear or being tested.

7.

Journal – students have the potentials to write and reflect upon their
learning experiences.

8.

Oral and written reports - the teacher assigns a research topic to students;
the latter conducts research and report the outcome in an oral or written
format.

Non-test
9. Panel Discussion – a group of students have the potential to verbally
present information obtained through research or library works.
10. Portfolio of student’s work – students can be required to collect
evidences and reflect upon their own learning.
11. Projects – the students can work on a project in their own creative
way.
12. Teacher observation – he can observe while students work on the
assigned tasks. He can also ascertain whether students understand the

C. Testing

Testing is a process of administering a test to
an individual or a group or students.

 This

process involves steps such as:

 Test

preparation

 Test

administration

 Collection

of test paper

D. Measurement

Measurement is a process of quantifying test results.

This process begins when the teacher compares students’ responses
with the presumably correct responses in the scoring key.

A raw score in the test has no meaning.

If the number of correct responses the child got in the test is 9, the his score is 9.

To give meaning, we further measure by obtaining the ration of the
score to the total number of items.

9/20, is more meaningful than the raw score “9” alone.

D. Measurement

The quantity obtained in measurement is further analyzed to
determine whether an individual’s performance meets the preset
criteria (criterion-referenced) or how the individuals performance
compared with the performance of other members of the class (normreferenced).

E. Assessment

Assessment – a process of gathering information about students’
learning and then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of
making decisions. (Lucas and Corpuz, 2007)

Assessment involves in activities such as administering different kinds
of written tests, observation of behavior or performance, examination
of work samples, use of checklists, and interview.

A process of quantifying the results of tests and non-tests to portray
the amount and quality of student’s learning and development.

The term assessment focuses on determining the amount of learning in
the three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

E. Assessment
 Assessment

is being used, on the one hand, for educational
improvement, increased school effectiveness and curriculum
reforms; and on the other, for political control of teachers,
students and curricula, centralized policy making, narrow
accountability, credentialism, educational selection, and the
determination of life chances in competitive markets.
(Okano, cited in Cohen, 1997)

E. Assessment
 There

are at least 9 types of assessment:

Norm-referenced

Criterion-referenced

Domain-referenced

diagnosis

Formative

Summative

Ipsative

Authentic

Performance

E. Assessment
 Norm-referenced

assessment

It gives us information on what a students can do in comparison with
other students in the class.

It helps the teacher to put students in a ranked order of achievement.

 Criterion-referenced

assessment

It uses specific preset criteria from which a student’s
performance is compared without referring to other students’
performance.

E. Assessment
 Domain-referenced

assessment

It determines learning in a particular field or area of the subject matter
(e.g. parts of speech in English) and the three domain of learning.

Diagnostic assessment

It identifies weaknesses, strengths, and problems of students’
learning.

It can be the teacher’s basis of planning what to do next in the
teaching and learning process.

E. Assessment
 Formative

assessment

It pinpoints whether students have achieved the objective of the
lesson taught.

This provides feedback about the effectiveness of teaching as
manifested by students’ learning

It is not conducted purposely for giving grades.

Its main purpose is to determine the gap between the intended
objective and actual students’ performance.

The result of this assessment is the basis of teacher’s decision to
proceed to the next lesson, or to re-teach the day’s lesson.

E. Assessment
 Summative

assessment

 It

is considered as the terminal assessment of learning.

 It

comes at the end of the unit, program, term, or school year.

 The

main purpose of this assessment is to give rating or grade
to students based on their performance or achievement.

 This

provides data on what the students have achieves in a
given period of time.

E. Assessment
 Ipsative

assessment

It refers to the process of self-assessment.

“Evaluation should provide for self-assessment”

It gives students an opportunity to evaluate their own learning.

 Authentic

assessment

it determines what students can actually do in real-life situations
rather than using some easy-to-score responses to questions.

Life’s learning experiences are bound to assessment; therefore, it
is of the essence to make learning and assessment real,
meaningful, and motivational.

E. Assessment
 Perfomance

assessment

 It

is undertaken to determine whether students can
demonstrate their learning through performance in real or
simulated situations.

 This

requires the learner to demonstrate knowledge, learning,
and understanding through real task application.

F. Evaluation
 Evaluation

is a process of determining the changes in the child as a
result of teaching and his experiences. (Lardizabal, 2002)

 It

is a systematic attempt at ascertaining the amount of progress
made in the child’s education directed toward the realization of
objectives in education.

 Evaluation

is a process of attaching quality or value judgment to the
quantity obtained through the process of assessment.

 Evaluation

that is based on result of assessment
comprehensive that evaluation based on measurement.

is

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