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Sociology

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Sociology
Day 1

Sequence
Introduction
Syllabus
Model CCS paper
Sociology: Meaning and importance
Origin of Sociology
Sociology as a Science
Sociological Perspectives
Social thinkers and their contributions
Questions and Answers
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Introduction
An optional subject
Marks 100
Objectives and MCQs
Recommended book: “Sociology by Horton and

Hunt”
For objectives, Faridi and Dogar Publishers
Degree of effort for preparation
Common sense
Scoring or Not scoring?

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Revised Syllabus
2016

Syllabus
I. General Sociology
1. Individual: Sociability or the sociality of man.
2. Culture: Meaning and Characteristics (Culture is

variable, learnt, social, shared, Transmissive,
dynamic and adaptive), types (Material, Non –
material), functions (transfer of knowledge, define
situation, provide Behaviour pattern, moulds
personality) and elements of culture (norms,
values, beliefs, sanctions, customs).Culture and
Socialization; formal and non-formal socialization,
transmission of culture, cultural relativism. Subcultures.
Ethnocentrism
and
xenocentrism,
Cultural lag, High culture and popular culture.
Multiculturalism, assimilation, and acculturation.

Syllabus
3. Society: Meaning and characteristics. Community;

meaning and characteristics. Individual and society.
Relationship between individual and society. Two
main theories regarding the relationship of man and
society (i) the social contact theory and (ii) the
organismic theory. Social and cultural evolution of
society (Hunting and Gathering Society, Herding and
Advance Herding Society, Horticultural Society,
Agrarian Society, Industrial Society, Post modern
Society).
4. Social Interaction: Caste and classes, Forms of
social classes, Feudal system in Pakistan, Social
Mobility-nature
of
social
mobility
and
its
determinants in Pakistani society, Culture of poverty.

Syllabus
5. Social Control: Mechanisms of social control-formal and

informal means of social control, Anomie, Alienation and
social Integration-Means of social integration in Pakistani
Society.
6. Social and Cultural Change and Social Policy:
Processes of Social and Cultural Change-discovery,
inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan Social
planning and directed social and cultural change, effect of
Industrialization, Urbanization, Modernization and Modern
Means of Communication on Social Change.
7. Public Opinion: Formation of Public, Opinion, Concept of
opinion leader, characteristics of opinion leadership.
8. Community:
The
rural
community,
Traditional
Characteristics of rural life, The urban community, Rural –
Urban convergence, Urbanism, Future of cities in Pakistan.

Syllabus
9. Social Institutions: The nature and genesis of

institutions, the process of institutionalization,
Functions of Social Institutions: Family, Religion,
Education, Economy and Politics.
10.Social Problems in Pakistan: High population
growth rate, Rural –urban migration. Issues of
technical/vocational training, Deviance and street
crime, Unemployment, illiteracy and School drop
out, Smuggling, Prostitution, Poverty, Drug
Addiction, Child Labour and Abuse Bonded Labour,
Social Customs and Traditions effecting Women in
Pakistan,
Violence
Against
Women’s
and
Domestics Violence, Issues concerning the
Elderly’s in Pakistan.

Syllabus
II. Sociological Theory:
Three

sociological

perspectives:

Structural

Functionalism, Symbolic interactions and Conflict.
Theorists: Ibn-i-Khaldun

Spencer, August Comte,

Emile Dukheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, Parson.
III. Methods of Sociological Research:
Scientific

Method,

Steps

in

research,

Types

of

Questionnaire Research Design, Surveys, Observation
and Case Studies.

Perspective

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Perspecti
ve

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Perspective

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Perspective

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Your Views

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Your Views?

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Your Views?

Moderat
e

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Your Views on
Democracy in
Pakistan
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Democracy in Pakistan

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Democracy in Pakistan

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Democracy in Pakistan

Moderat
e

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Qualities of Effective
Views
Views should be:
Candid
Objectively produced
Optimistic

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Milton’s
Conceptual
Analysis

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Analysis

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Conceptual Analysis

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What is it?
Definition and explanation
Meaning
Scope
Importance and significance

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Conceptual Analysis

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Causes?
Social
Political
Religious
Economic
Geographic:
Local
Regional
Global

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Conceptual Analysis

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Effects?
Positive
Advantages
Pros

Negative
Disadvantages
Cons
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Conceptual Analysis

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Recommendations?
Remedial measures
Policy corrections
Legal measures
Futuristic outlook
Short-term and long-term strategies
Inclusion of all stakeholders

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Class
Exercise
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Terrorism in Pakistan: A
Conceptual Analysis

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Sociology CSS Paper
2013
Q:2 Heredity versus group influence has given birth to controversy in
explaining socialization process. Where do you locate yourself in the
theoretical debate?
Q:3 Is Max Weber more relevant than Durkheim in today's
globalizing world? Discuss with reference to their theoretical
contributions. 
Q: 4 What is hypothesis? Develop a hypothesis and identify:
(a) independent variables  (b) dependent variable and
(c) mediating variable (if any)
Q: 5 Define and differentiate between caste and class. Discuss the
dynamics of classes in the existing feudal system.
Q: 6 Discuss as to how the process of social and cultural change in
Pakistan can be accelerated? Your answer must include theoretically
relevant factors in the rate of change. 
Q: 7 Discuss the nature and genesis of institutions along with the
change taking place in Pakistani family.
Q: 8 Write comprehensive notes on any two of the following:
(a) Marxist influence on sociological theory (b) Determinants of
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social
mobility (c) Institutional
evasions (d) Social Planning

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Sociology

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Sociology
Theory or science of associations
Focusses on human interactions, social life,

and human behavior
Influence of society
Its main subject matter or scope is

“Interacting Individual”

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Origin of Sociology

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Origin of Sociology
Evolved as a discipline
Stages of Evolution
1. Enlightenment
2. French Revolution
3. Industrial Revolution
4. Colonialism
5. Development of other social sciences

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Stages of Evolution
1. Enlightenment
Society as a human affair
Humans could alter society
and remove injustices
Differentiated State and
Society
Highlighted “Sources of Evil”
Well-being of the society

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Stages of Evolution

cont…

2. French Revolution
• A turning point
• Birth of a Democratic Society
• Reinforced two kinds of traditions
• Conservative (Order and solidarity)
• Liberal (Inequality, Conflict and

social change)
• Cause-and-effect relationship
developed
• Society viewed as a struggle between
powerful and powerless
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Stages of Evolution

cont…

3. Industrial Revolution
• Shifting of European Economy
• Changed socio-economic power



structures of society
Increased economic needs and changes
life styles
Nuclear families
Massive urbanization
Mechanical solidarity



Population explosion
Widening gap between haves and haves not
Unemployment, inflation and poverty

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Stages of Evolution

cont…

4. Colonialism
• European colonies in Africa, America and Asia
• Mixing of cultures
• Cultural diversity

5. Development of other Social Sciences
• Psychology
• Political Science
• Economics
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Write Up
Which evolutionary stage played more

phenomenal role in the development of
Sociology? And why?

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Please contact for
Queries
Asmatullah Junejo (PSP)
0300-7064608
asmatullahjunejo@hotmail.com

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