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- Field Theory

You are on page 1of 48

Doren Nedrick

What is a Capacitor?

An

electronic device

designed to store

electric charge.

Basically it consists

of two metal plates

separated by an

insulator material

called the dielectric.

metal plate Y

metal plate X

Types of Capacitors

Can

variable capacitor

).

Fixed capacitors have a specific single value of

capacitance. Fixed capacitors can be polarized

- electrolytic (

) or non polarized (

)

non polarized types can be connected either

way round (nonelectrolytic).

Polarized types have a positive and a negative

terminal and must be connected so that there

is DC through them in the correct direction.

Practical Capacitors

Variable Capacitors

Nonelectrolytic

structure of the dielectric.

Electrolytic capacitors use only polarized

direct current and can, and often do, explode

when an alternating or opposite voltage is

applied to them

Examples of electrolytic (polarized)

capacitors are: Aluminium and tantalum and

examples of nonelectric capacitors are

polyester, Mica and Ceramic.

Types of Capacitors

Continued

Capacitance

The

measures its charge storing ability and

is measured in farads (F).

The charge stored by a capacitor can be

found by using the formula Q = C x V

Where Q = charge (measured in

coulomb C), C = capacitance (in Farads

and V = voltage (in volts).

The Farad

It

Coulomb when the p.d. across it is

1Volt. If the charge is 6C when the p.d.

is 2V, then C = 6C/2V = 3F.

1 Farad is a large value of capacitance

hence smaller units are:

1 microfarad (F) = 10-6 F

1 nanofarad (nF) = 10-9 F

1 Picofarad (pF) = 10-12 F

Example

How

capacitor with 50V across it?

C = 10 x 10-6 F

V = 50V

Q = ?

Q = C x V

Q = 10 x 10-6 F x 50V

= 500 uC

Activity

1.

6800uF capacitor with 50V across it?

2. A capacitor stores 10, 000uC of

charge with 20V across its plates.

Calculate C.

3. What voltage will be across the

plates of a 2uF capacitor if it stores

100uC of charge?

Basically it consists of two

metal plates separated by an

insulator called the dielectric.

When connected to a

battery, the positive of the

battery attracts electrons

from plate X and the

negative repels electrons to

plate Y. Positive charge

(deficit of electrons) builds

up on X and an equal

negative (excess of

electrons) builds up on Y.

metal plate Y

metal plate X

During

metal plate Y

metal plate X

the charging

there is a brief flow

of electrons round

the circuit from X to

Y. Charging stops

when the p.d.

between X and Y

equals (and

opposes) the e.m.f.

of the battery.

Effect of a capacitor

During

flow of electrons round the circuit from

X to Y. Charging stops when the p.d.

between X and Y equals (and opposes)

the e.m.f. of the battery.

The

a capacitor to a change of p.d. is not

immediate. If the connections to the

battery are removed, the charge may take

a long time to leak away from the

capacitor unless a conductor is connected

across it.

A capacitor blocks the flow of direct current

A capacitor allows alternating current to

pass through

capacitance of a capacitor

Increasing the Cross Sectional Area

(CSA) of the plates

Distance between the plates

Type of dielectric material used

All

area gives greater capacitance; less plate

area gives less capacitance.

Explanation: Larger plate area results in

more field flux (charge collected on the

plates) for a given field force (voltage across

the plates)

All

spacing gives less capacitance; closer plate

spacing gives greater capacitance.

Explanation: Closer spacing results in a greater

field force (voltage across the capacitor divided

by the distance between the plates), which

results in a greater field flux (charge collected on

the plates) for any given voltage applied across

the plates.

Used

the dielectric gives greater capacitance; less

permittivity of the dielectric gives less capacitance.

Explanation: Some materials offer less opposition to

field flux for a given amount of field force. Materials

with a greater permittivity allow for more field flux

(offer less opposition), and thus a greater collected

charge, for any given amount of field force (applied

voltage).

Permittivity of dielectric

materials

"Relative"

of a material, relative to that of a pure

vacuum. The greater the number, the greater

the permittivity of the material. Glass, for

instance, with a relative permittivity of 7, has

seven times the permittivity of a pure

vacuum, and consequently will allow for the

establishment of an electric field flux seven

times stronger than that of a vacuum, all

other factors being equal.

Permittivity

Material

Relative permittivity (dielectric constant)

Vacuum ------------------------- 1.0000

Air ---------------------------- 1.0006

Waxed paper -------------------- 2.5

Hard Rubber -------------------- 2.5 to 4.80

Wood (Oak) --------------------- 3.3

Wood (Maple) ------------------- 4.4

Glass -------------------------- 4.9 to 7.5

Wood (Birch) ------------------- 5.2

Mica, ---------------- 5.0 to 8.7

Porcelain, ------------ 6.5

Alumina ------------------------ 8.0 to 10.0

Energy Stored

A

energy (energy of moving electrons)

and can be found by using the formula

below:

W = x C x V2 or x Q x V

(Since Q = C x V)

Where W = E = work done or energy,

C = Capacitance and V = Voltage

Example

Calculate

capacitor if it stores 1000uC of charge

when the voltage across it is 50V.

Q = 1000uC

V = 50V

W = ?

W = x Q x V

W = x 1000 x10-6 x 50V

W = 25 000uJ

Example

Calculate

capacitor?

Since Q = C x V

Then C = Q/V

C = 1000uC/ 50V

C = 20uF

Activity

A

20V across its plates. Calculate the

capacitance C and the energy stored by this

capacitor.

How much charge is stored in a 6800F

capacitor with 50V across it? How much

charge is stored by the capacitor?

What voltage will be across the plates of a

2F capacitor if it stores 100C of charge?

Calculate the energy stored by this capacitor?

charge a capacitor

The

maximum can be varied by placing a

resistor in series.

In

is in position 1, C

charges through R

from the supply. The

microammeter

measures the

charging current I and

the voltmeters record

the p.d.s VC and VR

across C and R

respectively at

different times (t).

Graph of charging

Characteristics

and b can be plotted

from the results and

show that:

I has its maximum value

at the start and

decreases more and

more slowly to zero as C

charges up;

Vc rises rapidly from zero

and slowly approaches

the supply voltage V

which it equals when C is

fully charged; and

VR behaves like I.

Capacitor Discharging In A CR

Circuit

Fig.

12.1, when S is

moved from position

1 to position 2 The

capacitor discharges

through R. If graphs of

I, Vc, and VR are

plotted as before,

they are again

exponential curves,

like those in Figs. 4a

and b.

Capacitor Discharging In A CR

Circuit

(i) I, the discharge

current, has its

maximum value at the

start but is in the

opposite direction to the

charging current (as is

VR); and

(ii) VC and VR fall as C

discharges and are

equal and opposite at all

times.

The

through a resistor do not occur instantaneously.

The time constant is a useful measure of how

long these processes take in a particular CR

circuit.

Charging If a capacitor of capacitance C is

charged at a constant rate through a resistor of

resistance R by a steady current I, it would be

fully charged with charge Q and p.d. V after a

time t where

t = CR seconds if C is in farads and R in ohms.

Example

=CxR

t = 1uF x 1000

T = 1000uS or 1mS or 0.001S

Example contd

This

measure of how long it takes for a

63.2% change to occur. After 5 RC

time constants have elapsed, the

voltage across C is practically equal to

its steady state value of 12V.

Vmax = 5 x 1ms

Vmax = 5mS

Activity

What

in which C = 1F and R = 1M

(b) How long will it take to reach its

maximum current?

Why

voltage of 250V not be used on a 230V

ac supply?

Capacitors in parallel

Voltage

in parallel

equal

Q1 = C1 x VT

Q2 = C2 x VT

Q3 = C3 x VT

QT = CT x VT

QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

CT

Divide both sides by VT well achieve

CT

= C1 + C2 + C3

Connecting capacitors in parallel is

equivalent to increasing its plate area.

Therefore, the total capacitance for

parallel connected capacitors is the

sum of the individual capacitances.

Example

Find:

CT = C1 + C2 + C3

CT = 10F + 20F + 50F

CT

= 80F

Q T = CT x V T

= 80F x 12V

= 960C

Q1

E1

= C1 x V T

= 10F x 12V

= 120C

= Q x VT

= x 120C x 12V

= 720J

Activity

Three

capacitors: C1 = 0.5uF, C2 =

1.5uF and C3 = 2uF are connected in

parallel to a battery of 12V.

Calculate the total capacitance

The total charge stored by the network

The charge stored by each capacitor

The energy stored by the entire circuit

The energy stored by each capacitor

Capacitors in series

QT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

QT = QT + QT + QT

C T C1

C2

C3

Divide both sides by QT

well achieve

1 = 1 + 1 + 1

C T C1

C2

C3

Connecting capacitors

in series is equivalent

to increasing the

distance between the

capacitor plates

Example

Find:

Activity

Solve:

stored by C3

circuit

Capacitive Reactance

When

across the plates of a capacitor, the

capacitor will alternatively charge and

discharge.

This means there will be charge and

discharge current flowing to and from

the plates of the capacitor.

How much current flows for a given

amount of applied voltage is determined

by the capacitive reactance (X C)

Capacitive Reactance

XC

= 1/(2 f C)

Example:

A

250V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the

current flowing in the circuit.

Practical Capacitors

need to be considered, apart from its

value and tolerance.

1. The voltage rating: this is the

maximum voltage (d.c. or peak a.c.) it

can withstand before the dielectric

breaks down (it is often marked on it).

2. The leakage current: no dielectric is a

perfect insulator but the loss of charge

by leakage through it should be small.

Testing Capacitors

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