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# Lecture 2

February 8, 2012
Extra class
5.30 pm – 7.00 pm
•Cross section Properties
•Classification
•Moment rotation behaviour
•Cross section properties used in design

Design of steel structures

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Cross section Properties

• Elastic section properties
• Plastic section properties

Design of steel structures

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Elastic Section Properties
• The exact section dimensions
• The location of the centroid if the section
is asymmetric about one or both axes
• Area of cross section
• Moments of inertia about various axes
• Radii of gyration about various axes
• Moduli of section for various axes
Design of steel structures

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Plastic section properties
• Plastic moduli of section

Design of steel structures

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u Torsional index. joists and channels used for determining the buckling resistance moments • • • • • Buckling parameter.Other important properties of universal beams. J These properties are given in standard tables or can be calculated using formulae given in BS 5950 part 1 Design of steel structures 5 . x Warping constant. H Torsional constant .

Elastic section properties Area = 2BT+dt BD 3 d3 MomentofinertiaYYaxi s    B  t 12 12 2TB 3 dt 3 momentofinertiaZZaxis   12 12 Radiusofgyration  Ix A Radiusofgyration  Modulusof sec tion. Iyy  Iz A Iz  D / 2 Iy  B / 2 Modulus of section is the elastic modulus of section Design of steel structures 6 . Zz  Symmetrical I section Modulusof sec tion.

6 mm 612 11.y = 986 x 106 mm4 Wpl. Determine the section properties Ix and Zx 229 mm 19.9 mm Wel. Because of the symmetry of the section the centroid of the plated UB Design of steel structures Is at the web centre.y=3680 x 10 3 mm3 Solution: The properties of the UB are available in tables and are shown above. 7 .Problem • Determine the properties of a plated UB section “610 UB 125” strengthened by welding a 300 mm x 20 mm plate to each flange.

The properties Ix and Zx are elastic properties i.e. the whole section is effective  I welded sec tion  IUB  2  I plate  Areaofplat e   dis tan cefromCG platetoCGUB  2  Moment of inertia of plate is small compared to other values . so omitted .   I welded  986  106  2   300  20     612  20 / 2  2184  106 mm 4 2 Ix 2184 10 6 Zx    6700 103 mm3  D / 2  612  2  20  Design of steel structures   2 8 .

Plastic moment of a section Neutral axis   fy   fy M=σ X Zxx Me=Py x Zxx   fy Mp=Py x Sxx Derivation: Plastic Moment = Py x area in compression x d/2 = Py x area in tension x d/2 = Py ( area in compression x d/4 +area in tension x d/4) = Py x algebraic sum of first moments of area about equal area axis Design of steel structures 9 .

plastic modulus and shape factor for the rectangular section 10 mm 500mm Design of steel structures 10 .Plastic modulus and shape factor PlasticModulus  • PlasticMomentof sec tion  D    2 Shape factor of a section is defined as  ν. where plastic mod ulus S xx  elastic mod ulus Z xx Problem: Determine the elastic moment. plastic moment. elastic section modulus.

67 mm 3  D  500       2  2  ElasticMomentof sec tion  Z xx  f y  416666.• Elastic properties • MomentOfInertia  bd 3 10  5003   104166666.5 Z xx 416666.7mm 4 12 12 ElasticSectionModulus  I xx 104166666.7   416666.7  f y Plastic properties Plastic sec tion mod ulus  algebraic sum of first moments of area about equal area axis Equal area axis coincides with the centroid of section d  Plastic sec tionModulus  2   areaAboveEqualAreaAxis   4  500  500  PlasticModulus  2   10   625000mm 3   2 4   Plasticmoment  Plastic mod ulus  f y  625000  f y ShapeFactor  S xx 625000   1.67 Design of steel structures 11 .

15 Design of steel structures 12 .Determine the shape factor for 610x229x125 UB S275 • • • From the table of properties of Universal Beams.143 Z xx 3220 The value of shape factor for most I-sections is about 1. the properties can be obtained: Zxx = 3220 cm3 Sxx=3680 cm3 S xx 3680    1.

the other end being free • Internal elements – elements attached to other elements at both longitudinal edges Outstand elements Internal elements Design of steel structures 13 .Types of elements • Two distinct types of elements • Outstand element – elements attached to adjacent element at one edge only .

More example Outstand elements Internal elements Design of steel structures 14 .

Local Buckling • The outstand element (flange) of an I beam will buckle prematurely) if it is too thin • Webs also will buckle under compressive stresses from bending and shear • To prevent local buckling from occurring it is necessary to limit their outstand/thickness ratios for flanges and depth /thickness ratios for webs d/t ratio for web b/t ratio for flanges Design of steel structures 15 .

Effective width. the whole width or area is not effective The effective width limitation under different conditions are given in the code. The effective area is calculated based on the effective widths multiplied by thicknesses Effective moment of inertia is moment of inertia calculated using the effective areas Effective section modulus is determined from Effective moment of inertia divided by extreme fibre distance from Neutral axis Design of steel structures 16 . effective moment of inertia and effective section modulus • • • • • When the plate buckles. effective area.

which may affect their load carrying capacity. • The compression may be due to direct axial force .Section classification • Clause 5.2 BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 classifies the compression elements of structural members into 4 categories depending upon their resistance to local buckling effects. bending moment or a combination of both • Cross sections are classified as – – – – Class 1 cross sections Class 2 cross sections Class 3 cross sections Class 4 cross sections Design of steel structures 17 .5.

2 of Code.4) of cross section is determined based on the c/t values of the compression parts compared to the limits given in table 5.Classification • The role of cross section classification is to identify the extent to which the resistance and rotation capacity of cross sections is limited by its local buckling resistance • The class (refers to Class 1.2. Design of steel structures 18 .3.

Design of steel structures 19 .

Design of steel structures 20 .

5 Design of steel structures 21 . 355. 420 or 460  235      f   y  0.• The limiting aspect ratio depends on the design strength f y as shown below where fy = 235. 275.

2 should be classified as class 1 plastic. Elements subject to compression that meet the limits for class 2 given in Table 5. Elements subject to compression that meet the limits for class 3 given in Table 5. It is necessary to make explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. Class 4 slender: Cross-sections in which local buckling will occur before attainment of yield stress in one or more parts of the cross section.Moment rotation behaviour • The following classification should be applied.2 should be classified as class 3 semi-compact. Elements subject to compression that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact given in Table 5. Class 2 compact: Cross-sections which can develop their plastic moment resistance. Class 3 semi-compact: Cross-sections in which the stress at the extreme compression fibre can reach the yield strength.2 should be classified as class 4 slender. but the plastic moment capacity cannot be developed due to local buckling. Elements subject to compression that meet the limits for class 1 given in Table 5. Class 1 cross sections: Cross-sections which can form a plastic hinge with rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. Design of steel structures 22 . but have limited rotation capacity because of local buckling.2 should be classified as class 2 compact.

Moment rotation behaviour Mp Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Me Moment M Class 4 rotation Design of steel structures 23 .

Moment rotation behaviour Neutral axis   fy M=σ X Zxx Class 4 Slender Figure a   fy Me=fy x Zxx Class 3 Semi compact Figure b Zxx = elastic section modulus Sxx = plastic section modulus Σ = elastic stress Design of steel structures Py = design strength   fy Mp=fy x Sxx Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Figure c 24 .

Descriptions • • • • Slender section: When aspect ratio is relatively high. then local buckling may prevent any part of the cross section from reaching the design strength (Py). Such sections are called slender sections or class 4. their reduced capacity is based on effective cross section properties. Semi compact section or class 3: Semi compact sections may be prevented from reaching their full plastic moment capacity by local buckling of one or more elements of the cross section. The aspect ratio may be such that only the extreme fibre stress can attain the design strength before local buckling occurs. Compact section or class 2: Sections which have full plastic moment capacity but not sufficient hinge rotation capacity Plastic section or class 1: sections which have full plastic moment and hinge rotation capacity Design of steel structures 25 . Such sections are classified as Class 3 and their capacity is therefore based on the limiting elastic moment as shown in figure b above.

4 mm.924 Design of steel structures 26 .8 cm3.5  0.9 mm T = 8.  235      f   y  0.5  235     275  0.DETERMINING CLASSIFICATIONS FOR SECTIONS Example 1 • Determine the classification for section 356 x 127 UB 33 Grade 275 subject bending • Sx = 539.5mm.2 is to be used. r = 10. B = 125. D = 348. Ixx = 8200cm4.2 mm (figure next slide) • Table 5.5 mm t = 5.

2)/(2x8.1/5.9-2x10.4-5.• Cf/tf=(125.5)=5.9 =52.83 • 3 • d/t = 311.7<80…note d=D-2T-2r Design of steel structures 27 .

7<66. •Since all elements are plastic.5 ………since it is beam.924=66. the NA is at mid depth.83 Web d/t = 52. the section is also plastic Design of steel structures 28 .32 ….Compression Flange Actual Cf/tf= 5. Limits c/t≤9ε 9x0.924=8.5 web is plastic……..element is plastic Limits c/t≤72ε 72x0.

Flange Minor axis or z axis r WEB Major axis or y axis D C for web = d = D-2T-2r C for flange = (B-tw-2r)/2 So even if d and c are not given. they can be calculated from D and B Design of steel structures 29 .

2.Cross section properties of sections cl.2 of EC3 • The cross section properties are dependent on the classification seen earlier • The capacity of class 4 : slender sections is calculated using effective section properties like effective cross section area and effective section modulus • Effective plastic section modulus is used for class 3 : semi-compact sections • Net cross sectional allowing for reduced area due to bolt holes • Gross cross section properties Design of steel structures 30 .6.

1 • Gross cross section properties are determined from the specified shape and nominal dimensions of the member or element • Holes for bolts should not be deducted but due allowance must be made for larger openings • Material used solely in splices or as battens should not be included Design of steel structures 31 .2.Gross cross section 6.2.

Net cross sectional area. 20 mm dia bolt requires 22 dia holes. an • • • • • • The reduction in the cross sectional area due to bolt holes The clear hole size is deducted.so deduction is area corresponding to 22 mm diameter. The holes can have different arrangements – the strength depends on the hole arrangement Case 1: Holes are not staggered Case 2: Holes are staggered Design of steel structures 32 .

b Diameter of bolt =d t Net cross sectional area  bt – n  d '  t ' d  d  2mm Design of steel structures 33 . If the fastener holes are not staggered.Holes are not staggered • • The net area of a cross-section = gross area minus appropriate areas for all holes and other openings. then total area to be deducted shall be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section perpendicular to the member axis (perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress in the member.

Plate with staggered holes • When the holes are staggered it is necessary to use special formulae to calculate the deduction •It is necessary to consider all possible failure paths extending progressively through the member •The net width now must account for the change in direction of the line of fracture. Design of steel structures 34 .

s1 s1 s1 S is staggered pitch G is the gauge g1 T is the thickness g1 g1 Design of steel structures 35 .

An approximate expression for this minimum stagger is  1 2  s pm   4s g d    When the actual stagger sp is less than spm.Minimum amount of stagger • • The minimum amount of stagger Spm for which a hole no longer reduces the area of the member depends on the diameter d of the hole and the inclination Sg/Sp of the failure path. deduction is reduced by sp2 x t/4sg Design of steel structures 36 . where sg is the gauge distance between the rows of holes.

it is important to find all the lines of failure and then determine which line of failure is the weakest cross section. When analyzing a member like this.• First. consider the different ways a tension member with staggered holes can fracture. These pictures depict the different lines of failure. That cross section will be taken as the net width Design of steel structures 37 .

Case 1 d d Area to be deducted = 2x d’t t Case 2 s d g s2 areadeduct ed  3  d t  t 4g ' d t Design of steel structures 38 .

different expressions have to be written Net area. This will produce the minimum area and therefore the critical section •Where s and g are different . an = Gross area – deductions for holes Design of steel structures 39 .s d g ns 2t areadeduct ed  4  d t  4g ' d t Where n= number of slant failure lines •Find the maximum area to be deducted from above three cases.

Problem 1: Determine the gross cross sectional area. net cross sectional area 80 mm 55 mm 80 mm 55mm 180mm wide x 10 mm thick plate 40 mm 50 mm 40 mm Design of steel structures 40 .

Calculation • • • • Gross area. Case 1: area to be deducted deduction  2 18 10  360mm 2 Design of steel structures 41 . An Three failure paths can be considerded. Ag = 180 x 10 = 1800 mm 2 Net cross sectional area.

2. and 5 since in all these cases deduction is the same Design of steel structures 42 .4.Case 1 80 mm 1 55 mm 80 mm 2 55mm 4 5 40 mm 50 mm 40 mm Case 1 failure section Note that this section is similar to one drawn through 1.

Case 2 s d g s 2t areadeducted  3  d t  4g ' d  t s2   t areadeducted   3  d  4  g   Areadeducted  effectivewidth  t 552  10 areadeducted  3 18  10   540  189  351mm 2 4  40 Note here that there are many failure paths similar to this as shown in next figure Design of steel structures 43 .

Case 2 Case 2 Design of steel structures 44 .

Case 3: 2  552 10 1 552 10 areadeducted  4  18 10    190. Design of steel structures 45 . G is 40 for outer lines and 50 for inner line.62 mm2 NET AREA = GROSS AREA – DEDUCTION = 180 X 10 – 360 =1440 MM2. Case one is the most severe. case two 351 mm2 and case 3 190.62mm 2 4  40 4  50 S is same for all slant failure lines. Since highest deuction occurs for this Case one 360 mm2.

• Ag = 180x10 = 1800 mm2 • An =1440mm2 Design of steel structures 46 .