MECHANICAL OPERATION

(CEO-I) – 3320013
Semester - 03

Kartik R. Desai

Chapter II: Screen Analysis .

.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Need of screen analysis: • A method for finding the particle-size distribution of any loose. flowing. conglomerate material by measuring the percentage of particles that pass through a series of standard screens with holes of various sizes.

. the screen analysis of overflow and underflow are similar.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Ideal and actual screen: • Ideal screen = which sharply separates the feed mixture in such a way that smallest particles in overflow is just larger than the largest particle in the underflow. • Actual screen = which don’t yield a sharp separation.

. 4) Separation is based on cut diameter of particle. Actual screen: 1) Efficiency of the screen is less than 1.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Ideal screen: 1) Efficiency of the screen is 1. 4) Separation is based on size & shape of particle. 3) Perfect separation is not obtained. 3) Perfect separation of particles are obtained. 2) Practically available. 2) Not found in practice.

Chapter II: Screen Analysis Types of screen analysis: 1) Cumulative analysis 2) Differential analysis .

foundations might only call for coarse aggregates. Concrete could call for both coarse and fine particles and a dense graded aggregate would be needed. For example. suburban) that is being paved. depends on the type of road (i. . Gradation also applies to subgrades in paving. which is the material that a road is paved on. in this case.e. rural. and therefore an open gradation is needed. Gradation is a primary concern in pavement mix design. Gradation. highway. Asphalt design also calls for a dense graded aggregate.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Application of screen analysis: Gradation is usually specified for each engineering application it is used for.

• Effectiveness = measure of the success of the screen in closely separating undersize and oversize material.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Capacity and effectiveness of screen: • Capacity = is the mass of material that can be fed per unit time to unit area of the screen. .

Chapter II: Screen Analysis • Derivation of formula for overall effectiveness of screen: • E = (XF – XB) (XD – XF) XD (1 – XB) (XD – XB)2 (1 – XF) XF Where XF = mass fraction of material A in feed XD= mass fraction of material A in overflow XB = mass fraction of material A in underflow .

Chapter II: Screen Analysis • Types of screen: • The screens can be classified into following types: – Grizzlies – Trommels – Mechanically shaking screens – Vibrating Screens – Oscillating screens – Reciprocating screens .

Chapter II: Screen Analysis Grizzlies: • • • • • These consist of a set of parallel bars held apart by spacers at some predetermined opening. A grizzly is widely used before a primary crusher in rock. It can be a stationary set of bars or a vibrating screen. or angle with the horizontal. – The slope. – They are normally limited to the scalping or rough screening of dry material at 0. will vary between 20 and 50°. Bars are frequently made of manganese steel to reduce wear. . Stationary grizzlies: – These are the simplest of all separating devices and the least expensive to install and maintain.or orecrushing plants to remove the fines before the ore or rock enters the crusher. and the separation may not be sufficiently complete. – Stationary grizzlies require no power and little maintenance.05 m (2 in) and coarser and are not satisfactory for moist and sticky material. – It is difficult to change the opening between the bars.

in which the parallel bars are in a horizontal plane. . – This type of grizzly is used to retain occasional pieces too large for the following plant equipment.Chapter II: Screen Analysis • Flat grizzlies: – These. – These lumps must then be broken up or removed manually. • Vibrating grizzlies: – These are simply bar grizzlies mounted on eccentrics so that the entire assembly is given a back-and-forth movement or a positive circle throw. are used on tops of ore and coal bins and under unloading trestles.

open at both ends. The material to be screened is delivered at the upper end. . and inclined at a slight angle. Their capacity is not great. They consist of a cylindrical frame surrounded by wire cloth or perforated plate. and efficiency is relatively low. The screens revolve at relatively low speeds of 15 to 20 r/min.Chapter II: Screen Analysis • • • • • • Revolving Screens : Revolving screens are also called Trommel screens. The desired product falls through the wire cloth openings. and the oversize is discharged at the lower end.

The advantages of this type are low headroom and low power requirement. In many screening operations such devices have given way to vibrating screens. The disadvantages are the high cost of maintenance of the screen and the supporting structure owing to vibration and low capacity compared with inclined high-speed vibrating screens. Shaking screens. . The material to be screened is fed at the upper end and is advanced by the forward stroke of the screen while the finer particles pass through the openings. The frame is driven with a reciprocating motion.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Mechanical Shaking Screens: • • • • • • • These screens consist of a rectangular frame which holds wire cloth or perforated plate and is slightly inclined and suspended by loose rods or cables or supported from a base frame by flexible flat springs. such as the mechanical-conveyor type made by may be used for both screening and conveying.

Advantages include accuracy of sizing. the screen itself is vibrated. increased capacity per unit area. low maintenance cost per ton of material handled. and less installation space and weight. In electrically or electromagnetic vibrating screens. The capacity. the whole assembly is vibrated. and in mechanically vibrated screen. especially in the finer sizes. The vibrating screens basically divided into two main classes: (1) mechanically vibrated screens and (2) electrically vibrated screens.Chapter II: Screen Analysis • • • • Vibrating Screens: These screens are used when large capacity and high efficiency are desired. is so much greater than that of any of the other screens that they have practically replaced all other types when efficiency of the screen is an important factor. Electromagnetic vibrating screen Mechanically vibrating screen .

• Silk cloths are often used. can be separated at 200 to 300 mesh. • Screens in this group are usually used from 0. Some light free-flowing materials. .Chapter II: Screen Analysis • Oscillating Screens: • These screens are characterized by low speed oscillations [5 to 7 oscillations per second (300 to 400 r/min)] in a plane essentially parallel to the screen cloth. however.013 m (1/2 in) to 60 mesh.

05-m (2-in) diameter] at the feed end to reciprocating motion at the discharge end. and since the screen is inclined about 5°. • Frequency is 8 to 10 oscillations per second (500 to 600 r/min). ranging from gyratory [about 0.0025 m (1⁄10 in) is also set up. .Chapter II: Screen Analysis • Reciprocating Screens: • An eccentric under the screen supplies oscillation. • They are not designed for handling heavy tonnages of materials like rock or gravel. a secondary high-amplitude normal vibration of about 0.

either round or square. with a series of screen cloths nested atop one another.5 m (24 to 60 in). supplied by eccentrics or counterweights. • Machines of this type are operated continuously.6 to 1.Chapter II: Screen Analysis Gyratory Screens and Riddles: • These are boxlike machines. is in a circular or near circular orbit. . • The gyratory riddle is the least expensive screen on the market and is intended normally for batch screening. • The size ranges from 0. • Gyratory Riddles screens are driven in an oscillating path by a motor attached to the support shaft of the screen. • Oscillation.