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Chapter IX: Mixing
• Purpose of mixing solids and pastes:
• The purpose of mixing is to produce a well mixed
product that has necessary properties like, visual
uniformity, high strength, uniform burning rate, or
other desired characteristics. A good mixer is one
that produces a well mixed product at lowest
overall cost.

Mixing Equipments • For rubbers. or the material must all be brought to the agitator. smearing. pastes and heavy plastic masses the agitator must visit all the parts of the mixer. liquids. and compressing. • The action in a mixer can be described as a combination of low-speed shear. • Kneaders and mixer-extruders are used for thick pastes and plastic masses. wiping. • These mixers are used for viscosity above 2000P. . folding. • Other mixers can be used for blending pastes. • Impact wheels are used for dry powders. stretching.

• Factors considered in selection of equipment: .

Rate of mixing • For all the rate processes. • The mixing index. IS is a measure of how far mixing has proceeded dI S toward equilibrium. the rate of change of IS is directly proportional • For Where. the rate is directly proportional to the driving force. to (1k -isISa).  k (1  I S ) dt short time mixing. t 1 dt  0 k t  IS dI S  1 IS IS . I S .0  1 ln   k  1 IS  Where.0  1 n With sample containing number of particles =n .constant.0 and driving force for mixing at any time can be considered to be (1 . The equilibrium value of IS is 1.0  1  I S .IS).

• Ribbon blender: .

one moving the solid slowly in one direction. and the other moving it quickly in the other. • The ribbon can be batch or continuous. • Ribbon blenders are effective for thin pastes and for powders that do not flow readily.Ribbon mixer (blender) • It consists of a horizontal trough containing a central shaft and a helical ribbon agitator. • Two counteracting ribbons are mounted on the same shaft. . not from motion of solids through the trough. • The power required is moderate. • The mixing results from turbulence induced by counteracting agitators.

• Kneaders: .

Kneaders .

and less riding of material above the blades. and recombining as the material is pulled and squeezed against blades. The blades are pitched to achieve end-to-end circulation.Kneaders – Double armed • The universal mixing and kneading machine consists of two counter rotating blades in a rectangular trough curved at the bottom to form two longitudinal half cylinders and a saddle section. and sidewalls. with the advantages of faster mixing from constant change of relative position. saddle. smearing. folding. dividing. • The blades may be tangential or overlapping. Tangential blades are run at different speeds. stretching. • The blades are driven by gearing at either or both ends. • The mixing action is a combination of bulk movement. greater wiped heattransfer area per unit volume. Overlapping blades can be designed to avoid buildup .

• Pug mill: .

and moved forward to be acted upon by each succeeding blades. • A double shaft open trough mill is used for rapid or more thorough mixing. • Solids continuously enter at one end of mixing chamber and discharge from the other. and mix liquids with solids to form thick. • In the chamber. the material is cut.Pug mills • Mixing is done by blades or knives set in a helical pattern on a horizontal shaft turning in an open trough or closed cylinder. break up agglomerates in plastic solids. • The chamber of enclosed mills can be cylindrical or polygonal. mixed. heavy slurries. • Pug mills are used to blend homogenize clays. . • They are built with jackets for heating or cooling.

• Banbury mixer: .

Banbury mixers .

• The clearance between the rotors and the walls is extremely small. • The operation of the rotors of a Banbury at different speeds enables one rotor to drag the stock against the rear of the other and thus help clean ingredients from this area.Banbury mixers • It is used mainly in the plastics and rubber industries. • The shaft turns at 30 to 40 rpm. • The top of the charge is confined by an air-operated ram cover mounted so that it can be forced down on the charge. and it is here that the mixing action takes place. • The friction produced in the mixer is more and hence cooling may be required for heat sensitive materials .

• Muller mixer: .

the pan is rotated and wheels are held stationary. • The action results from the slip of the wheels on the solids. the pan is stationary and a central vertical shaft is driven. • Plows guide the solids under the muller wheels. or to the discharge at the end of operation.Muller mixer • Mulling is smearing or rubbing action similar to that in a mortar and pestle. and both pan and wheels are rotated. the wheels are offset from center. causing the muller wheels to roll in a circular path over a layer of solids on the pan floor. • Second design is. • They are effective in uniform coating of solids. . • One design is. • Third design is.

• Calculation of mixing index: .

Effectiveness of mixing and mixing index • • • • • • Let the overall weight fraction of tracer in the mix = µ The number of samples taken = N Mass fraction of tracer in each sample = xi Average value of tracer concentration = If mixing is not complete.  o   (1   ) IP  o  S ( N  1)  (1   )  iN1 xi2  x  iN1 xi . The ratio that increases with mixing is σo (standard deviation at zero mixing) to S (standard deviation after mixing) called mixing index. so a low value means good mixing. IP. xi will differ from The standard deviation S. is S  N i 1 ( xi  x ) 2 N 1   x  x  iN1 xi 2 N i 1 i N 1 S diminishes to zero s mixing proceeds.

Gavhane page no 111-127 • All images are taken from Google image. Smith. Peter Harriott page no 235-278 • Unit Operations –I Tenth Ed by K.REFERENCES: • Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering Fifth Ed by Warren L. Julian C. A. . McCabe.