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You are on page 1of 47

TRANSFORMERS

Compiled and presented by

Mr. D. Nedrick

What is a transformer

►A

**transformer is a device used for
**

changing voltage values in a circuit.

► The

**change is brought about by using
**

the magnetic effect of an alternating

current.

2

Induced e.m.f. (electromotive

force)

► When

**a conductor cuts, or is cut by,
**

magnetic lines of force, an e.m.f.

(voltage) is induced into that

conductor.

3

Self-induced e.m.f

► The

**e.m.f. which is induced in a coil due
**

to the changing flux in the coil cutting

the conductors of the coil.

► This self-induced e.m.f. is in opposition

to the voltage producing it. The selfinduced e.m.f, tends to limit the current

in the circuit: it chokes the current

flowing in a coil when it is carrying an

alternating, or changing, current.

► The greater the change in the current

the greater the e.m.f.

4

Self Induced EMF 5 .

► This e. due to Mutual Inductance ► When a coil A carrying an alternating.f. an e.E. induced into coil B. is in opposition to the force producing it.m. will be induced into coil B. or changing. current is placed beside another coil B.m.m. termed the e.f.f. of mutual inductance. 6 .m.f.

a magnetic linkage).. only a magnetic connection (i.Mutual Inductance ► NOTE: There is no direct electrical connection between the two coils.e. 7 .

Double-wound Transformer ► Construction: The construction of the double-wound transformer is as follows: ► ► ► ► (1) primary winding (insulated copper conductors) (2) secondary winding (insulated copper conductors) (3) core (silicon steel laminations) 8 (4) INSULATION .

Construction cont’d 9 .

wound on a bobbin or former of insulating material. The windings consist of insulated copper conductors. insulated from one another. 10 . ► 2. There are two coils. and wound round a silicon steel core.► 1.

The Core of the Transformer core of the transformer is made up of layers of stampings. 11 . or kaolin. ► These sheets of steel are insulated from one another with shellac. The vertical parts of the core are termed the limbs. ► Silicon steel is used because it retains very little magnetism and provides a low reluctance (magnetic 'resistance') path for the magnetic lines of force. and (b) the shell type. ► There are two basic types of core: (a) the core type.► The 3. paper. or laminations of silicon steel.

12 .

The larger transformers are fitted into a welded sheet-steel case which is filled with oil for cooling purposes. 13 .The Core ► 4.

Cycle of Operation ► There are two distinct circuits: (a) the primary winding (coil A) to which the incoming supply is connected. and (b) the secondary winding (coil B) across which the load is connected. 14 .

How Does the Transformer Work? 15 .

16 . ► 2. This alternating current produces an alternating magnetic field linking the primary and secondary windings.f. of mutual inductance into the secondary winding. The variation of magnetic flux induces (a) an e.m. and (b) an e. of self-inductance into the primary winding. An alternating current supply (IA) flows in the primary winding A.m.Cont’d ► The cycle of operation is as follows: ► 1. ► 3.f.

When a load is connected across the secondary winding B a current (I B) flows through it. ► 5. 17 . The field due to this alternating secondary current (IB) has a demagnetizing effect on the primary winding and to neutralize this effect a greater current must flow in the primary winding.Cont’d ► 4.

Transformation Ratio ► The ratio of the input voltage (the primary voltage VA) to the output voltage (VB) is determined by the ratio of the turns. 18 .

Thus 100V applied across the primary will produce 200V across the secondary. The ratio is the same for voltage current and the number of turns hence: 19 . the ratio will be two to one (2:1) step-up.Cont’d ► For example: if the primary winding has 500 turns and the secondary winding has 1000 turns.

Ns/Np.Cont’d ► Turns ratio = Vs/Vp. Ip/Is therefore the formula ► Vs/Vp = Ns/Np = Ip/Is (the use of any two ratio constitute a formula) ► Where: Vs = Secondary Voltage ► Vp = Primary voltage ► Ns = Number of turns on the secondary ► Np = Number of turns on the primary ► Is = Current through the secondary coil ► Ip = Current through the primary coil 20 .

Calculate the secondary voltage when the primary is supplied at 240V d.c.c.Example ►A transformer has a step-down ratio of 20:1. ► N P = VP ► Ns VS cross multiply ► N P x V S = VP x N S ► VS = V P x N S ► NP 21 . ► Trick you. transformer is used isolate dc circuits anyways work it a.

Example Solution ► VS = 240V x 1 ► 20 ► = 12V ► How much current would flow if a 6Ω load is connected across the secondary winding? ► I = V/R ► = 12V/6Ω ► = 2A 22 .

1A 23 .Solution 2 ► Calculate the primary Current. ► NP/NS = IS/IP Cross multiply ► NP x I P = I S x N S ► IP = IS x NS ► NP ► = 2A x 1t ► 20t ► = 0.

The primary winding contains 1500 turns. Calculate the secondary voltage in a double-wound transformer having a stepdown ratio of 30:1.Exercise ► 1. 24 . A double-wound transformer is used to supply 50 V from the 250 V mains. ► 2. Find (a) the number of secondary turns and (b) the secondary current when the primary current is 5 A. The primary voltage is 150V.

of turns 25 .Volts Per Turn ► Volts per turn in a transformer are calculated by dividing the voltage across the winding by the number of turns in the winding. Volts per turn = winding voltage no.

1 26 . Calculate the 'volts per turn'.Example: ►A double-wound transformer has a 240V primary consisting of 2400 turns. of turns Volts per turn = 240V 2400t Volts per turn = 0. Volts per turn = winding voltage no.

with a step-down ratio of 6000V to 250V if the volts per turn are 2. Determine the respective number of turns in each winding of a doublewound transformer.Exercise ► 1. 27 .

The primary and secondary are on the same winding and the lines of force from the primary cut the turns of the secondary and induce a voltage into them.Auto-transformer ► This type of transformer uses the principle of self-induction. 28 .

► The ratio is not greater than 2 to 1 unless special precautions are taken. This transformer may be used for step-up or step-down transformation. but its practical application is limited. because there is a direct electrical connection between the input supply and the output. 29 .Limitations ► NOTE.

Dual Voltage Transformer 30 .

► 2. ► 1. Copper losses: This loss is a heat loss due to the current flowing through the copper of the windings.Losses in Transformers ►A transformer is a highly efficient piece of equipment. mainly because there are no moving parts. These are of two types: ► (a) Losses due to eddy currents ► (b) Hysteresis losses 31 . Iron losses. There are two sources of loss. It is termed an I 2R loss.

32 .Eddy current ► Eddy currents are alternating currents which are induced into the metal core of the transformer by the alternating field in the core.

Eddy Current ► This loss is minimized by using laminations. 33 . and to increase the resistance per path. The laminations are insulated from one another to keep the eddy current paths separate..f.m. to reduce the e.

or residual. ► A certain amount of magnetism remains after the current has collapsed. This retained. magnetism must be neutralized and the energy used to neutralize it represents a loss. 34 . ► This loss is minimized by using a core in which the residual magnetism is small: silicon steel is the most common core material as it retains little magnetism and provides a low reluctance (magnetic ‘resistance') to the lines of force.Hysterisis Loss ► Hysteresis losses are due to the energy used in the core during the changing cycle of magnetism.

► Efficiency. may be calculated as follows: ► Efficiency percent = Output Power x 100 ► Input Power 35 . at any power factor.Calculation of Transformer Efficiency ►A transformer is the most efficient machine because it has no moving parts and has it’s efficiency usually about 90% to 98%.

then ► Vs x Is = Vp x Ip 36 ..e. kVA = kW) and that losses are negligible (power input = power output).Relationship between VA input and VA output: ► Assuming that the power factor is unity (i.

Since losses are negligible: ► VA (primary) x IA = VB (Secondary) x IB ► NP /NS = VP/VS ► VS ► = 6600V/10 = 660V 37 .Example ►A single phase step down transformer having a ratio of 10:1 has a primary voltage of 6600V and a load of 13.2kVA.

Finding Secondary Current ► Since losses are negligible: ► Input = Output ► 13200VA = 660V x I ► I = 20A 38 .

What is its efficiency? 39 .Exercise ►A 240V to 4800V transformer has a primary current of 95 A and a secondary current of 4A.

Air cooling (AN). This is achieved by one of the following methods 1. Convection currents in the air dissipate the heat. Oil immersion (ON). 40 . In this method the transformer winding is immersed in a tank containing oil. This method is used with small transformers. 2.Types of Cooling ► The losses in a transformer are generated in the form of heat and it is essential that the temperature is kept below a certain level (generally about 80 °C).

► Variations of the above methods are also used.Oil Immersion ► The heat is transferred from the windings through the oil. the dissipation of the heat is assisted by increasing the surface area of the tank with cooling tubes. forced air blast (AB) or the forced circulation of oil with a pump assisted by water cooling (OFW). for example. 41 .

.Ratings ►A transformer is rated in kilovoltamperes (i. apparent power).e. 42 . true power (kW) is not used because the current through the wind ings will increase as the power factor decreases but the kilowatts will remain the same. Since the heating of the windings. depends on the current. and hence temperature rise.

Calculate the voltage drop in the line as a percentage of the total voltage.000V (132kV) distribution line has a total resistance of 1Ω and carries a current of 30A.Applications ► The main application of the transformer is in distribution systems. ► Since V = I x R ► V = 30A x 1Ω ► = 30V 43 . The effectiveness of the transformer in this application may be illustrated by the following examples: ► A 132.

Example 44 .

45 .

46 . supplies to rectifiers and radio equipment.Further Applications ► Welding (supplying a low voltage-high current output). The autotransformer is often used for motor starting. and for discharge lamp circuits.

The secondary winding of the transformer is connected to a load of 60 W. 47 .Past paper questions ►A double-wound power transformer has ten times as many primary windings as the secondary windings.c. Calculate the ► (i) secondary voltage ► (ii) current in the primary winding ► (iii) number of turns in the primary winding if there are 300 turns on the secondary winding. Assume the transformer losses to be negligible. supply. The primary winding of the transformer is connected to a 120 V a.

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