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Electrical Drives

About 50% of electrical energy used for drives.

Can be either used for fixed speed or variable speed,


75% - constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding).

VSD Application

Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

Example on VSD application


Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

Example on VSD application


Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

Elementary principles of mechanics


v
x

Newtons law

Fm Ff

Fm
Ff

d Mv
dt

Linear motion, constant M

d v
d2 x
Fm Ff M
M 2 Ma
dt
dt

First order differential equation for speed


Second order differential equation for displacement

Elementary principles of mechanics

Rotational motion
- Normally is the case for electrical drives

Tl

Te Tl

T e , m
J

d Jm
dt

With constant J,

d m
d 2
Te Tl J
J 2
dt
dt

First order differential equation for angular frequency (or velocity)


Second order differential equation for angle (or position)

Elementary principles of mechanics


For constant J,

d m
dt

d m
dt

dm
dt

Torque dynamic present during speed transient


Angular acceleration (speed)

The larger the net torque, the faster the acceleration is.
speed (rad/s)

200
100
0
-100
-200
0.19

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

20
torque (Nm)

Te Tl J

15
10
5
0
0.19

Elementary principles of mechanics

Combination of rotational and translational motions


Fe

Fl

Te,
r

Tl
v

Fe Fl M

d v
dt

Te Tl r 2M

Te = r(Fe),

d
dt

r2M - Equivalent moment inertia of the


linearly moving mass

Tl = r(Fl),

v =r

Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing


Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume
Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors
m1

n1

Load 1
Tl1

Motor
Te

J2
m2

J1

n2

Load 2
Tl2

Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing

Motor
Te

m1

m
Load 1
Tl1

n1
m2

J1

Motor
Te

n2

J2
Load 2
Tl2

J equ J1 a 22 J 2
Equivalent
Load , Tlequ

Tlequ = Tl1 + a2Tl2


Jequ

a2 = n1/n2

Motor steady state torque-speed characteristic


SPEED

Synchronous mch
Induction mch
Separately / shunt DC mch
Series DC

TORQUE

By using power electronic converters, the motor characteristic


can be change at will

Load steady state torque-speed characteristic


Frictional torque (passive load)
SPEED

T~ C

T~ 2
T~

Exist in all motor-load drive


system simultaneously
In most cases, only one or two
are dominating
Exists when there is motion
TORQUE

Coulomb friction
Viscous friction
Turbulent flow friction

Load steady state torque-speed characteristic


Constant torque, e.g. gravitational torque (active load)
SPEED

Gravitational torque

Vehicle drive

Te
TORQUE
TL

gM
FL

TL = rFL = r g M sin

Load steady state torque-speed characteristic


Hoist drive

Speed

Torque
Gravitational torque

Load and motor steady state torque


At constant speed, Te= Tl
Steady state speed is at point of intersection between Te and Tl of the
steady state torque characteristics
Te

Torque

Tl

Steady state
speed

r3

r1r

r2

Speed

Thermal considerations

Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase


Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the
temperature it can withstand.
Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature
Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase):
- Conductor heat losses (i2R)
- Core losses hysteresis and eddy current
- Friction losses bearings, brush windage

Thermal considerations
Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature
does not exceed the temperature limit
Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is
complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes
Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body
Ambient temperature, To

p1
Input heat power
(losses)

Thermal capacity, C (Ws/oC)


Surface, A (m2)
Surface temperature, T (oC)

p2
Emitted heat power
(convection)

Thermal considerations
Power balance:
C

dT
p1 p 2
dt

Heat transfer by convection:


, where is the coefficient of heat transfer

p 2 A(T To )

Which gives:
dT A
p

T 1
dt
C
C

With T(0) = 0 and p1 = ph = constant ,


T

ph
1 e t /
A

, where

C
A

Thermal considerations
ph
A

ph
1 e t /
A

Heating transient

t
T T(0) e t /

T(0)

Cooling transient

Thermal considerations
The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation:
Continuous duty
Load torque is constant
over extended
Continuous
duty period multiple
Short time intermittent duty
Steady state temperature reached
Periodic intermittent duty
Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load
p1n
A

Losses due to continuous load

p1n

Thermal considerations

Short time intermittent duty


Operation considerably less than time constant,
Motor allowed to cool before next cycle
Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached

Thermal considerations
Short time intermittent duty

p1s

p1
p1n

p1s
A

p1n
A

Tmax

t1

Thermal considerations
Short time intermittent duty
T

T
p1n
A

Tmax

t1

p1s p p1 t /
t /
p11nn p1s 1s1t11 e/ e

p1n A1 eA
t1

p1s
1 e t /
A

Thermal considerations

Periodic intermittent duty


Load cycles are repeated periodically
Motors are not allowed to completely cooled
Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached

Thermal considerations

Periodic intermittent duty


p1

heating

coolling

heating coolling
heating coolling

Torque-speed quadrant of operation

2
T -ve
+ve
Pm -ve

T +ve
+ve
Pm +ve

T -ve
-ve
Pm +ve

T +ve
-ve
Pm -ve

4-quadrant operation

Te

Direction of positive torque will


produce positive (forward) speed

Quadrant 2
Forward braking

Quadrant 1
Forward motoring

Quadrant 3
Reverse motoring

Quadrant 4
Reverse braking

Te

Direction of positive (forward)


speed is arbitrary chosen

Te

T
Te
m

Ratings of converters and motors


Torque
Transient
torque limit
Continuous
torque limit

Power limit for


transient torque

Power limit for


continuous torque

Maximum
speed limit

Speed

Steady-state stability