You are on page 1of 29

# Electrical Drives

## Can be either used for fixed speed or variable speed,

75% - constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding).

VSD Application

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

## Example on VSD application

Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

## Example on VSD application

Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed
valve
Supply

Power
In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss
Mainly in valve

Power
In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

v
x

Newtons law

Fm Ff

Fm
Ff

d Mv
dt

d v
d2 x
Fm Ff M
M 2 Ma
dt
dt

## First order differential equation for speed

Second order differential equation for displacement

## Elementary principles of mechanics

Rotational motion
- Normally is the case for electrical drives

Tl

Te Tl

T e , m
J

d Jm
dt

With constant J,

d m
d 2
Te Tl J
J 2
dt
dt

## First order differential equation for angular frequency (or velocity)

Second order differential equation for angle (or position)

For constant J,

d m
dt

d m
dt

dm
dt

## Torque dynamic present during speed transient

Angular acceleration (speed)

The larger the net torque, the faster the acceleration is.

200
100
0
-100
-200
0.19

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

20
torque (Nm)

Te Tl J

15
10
5
0
0.19

Fe

Fl

Te,
r

Tl
v

Fe Fl M

d v
dt

Te Tl r 2M

Te = r(Fe),

d
dt

## r2M - Equivalent moment inertia of the

linearly moving mass

Tl = r(Fl),

v =r

## Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing

Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume
Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors
m1

n1

Tl1

Motor
Te

J2
m2

J1

n2

Tl2

## Elementary principles of mechanics effect of gearing

Motor
Te

m1

m
Tl1

n1
m2

J1

Motor
Te

n2

J2
Tl2

J equ J1 a 22 J 2
Equivalent

Jequ

a2 = n1/n2

## Motor steady state torque-speed characteristic

SPEED

Synchronous mch
Induction mch
Separately / shunt DC mch
Series DC

TORQUE

## By using power electronic converters, the motor characteristic

can be change at will

SPEED

T~ C

T~ 2
T~

## Exist in all motor-load drive

system simultaneously
In most cases, only one or two
are dominating
Exists when there is motion
TORQUE

Coulomb friction
Viscous friction
Turbulent flow friction

Constant torque, e.g. gravitational torque (active load)
SPEED

Gravitational torque

Vehicle drive

Te
TORQUE
TL

gM
FL

TL = rFL = r g M sin

Hoist drive

Speed

Torque
Gravitational torque

At constant speed, Te= Tl
Steady state speed is at point of intersection between Te and Tl of the
Te

Torque

Tl

speed

r3

r1r

r2

Speed

Thermal considerations

## Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase

Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the
temperature it can withstand.
Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature
Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase):
- Conductor heat losses (i2R)
- Core losses hysteresis and eddy current
- Friction losses bearings, brush windage

Thermal considerations
Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature
does not exceed the temperature limit
Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is
complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes
Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body
Ambient temperature, To

p1
Input heat power
(losses)

## Thermal capacity, C (Ws/oC)

Surface, A (m2)
Surface temperature, T (oC)

p2
Emitted heat power
(convection)

Thermal considerations
Power balance:
C

dT
p1 p 2
dt

## Heat transfer by convection:

, where is the coefficient of heat transfer

p 2 A(T To )

Which gives:
dT A
p

T 1
dt
C
C

## With T(0) = 0 and p1 = ph = constant ,

T

ph
1 e t /
A

, where

C
A

Thermal considerations
ph
A

ph
1 e t /
A

Heating transient

t
T T(0) e t /

T(0)

Cooling transient

Thermal considerations
Continuous duty
over extended
Continuous
duty period multiple
Short time intermittent duty
Periodic intermittent duty
Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load
p1n
A

## Losses due to continuous load

p1n

Thermal considerations

## Short time intermittent duty

Operation considerably less than time constant,
Motor allowed to cool before next cycle
Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached

Thermal considerations
Short time intermittent duty

p1s

p1
p1n

p1s
A

p1n
A

Tmax

t1

Thermal considerations
Short time intermittent duty
T

T
p1n
A

Tmax

t1

p1s p p1 t /
t /
p11nn p1s 1s1t11 e/ e

p1n A1 eA
t1

p1s
1 e t /
A

Thermal considerations

## Periodic intermittent duty

Motors are not allowed to completely cooled
Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached

Thermal considerations

p1

heating

coolling

heating coolling
heating coolling

2
T -ve
+ve
Pm -ve

T +ve
+ve
Pm +ve

T -ve
-ve
Pm +ve

T +ve
-ve
Pm -ve

Te

## Direction of positive torque will

produce positive (forward) speed

Forward braking

Forward motoring

Reverse motoring

Reverse braking

Te

## Direction of positive (forward)

speed is arbitrary chosen

Te

T
Te
m

Torque
Transient
torque limit
Continuous
torque limit

transient torque

## Power limit for

continuous torque

Maximum
speed limit

Speed