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75% - constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding).

VSD Application

Constant speed

valve

Supply

Power

In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

Mainly in valve

Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed

valve

Supply

Power

In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss

Mainly in valve

Power

In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

Variable Speed Drives

Constant speed

valve

Supply

Power

In

motor

Supply

pump

PEC

Power out

Power loss

Mainly in valve

Power

In

motor

pump

Power out

Power loss

v

x

Newtons law

Fm Ff

Fm

Ff

d Mv

dt

d v

d2 x

Fm Ff M

M 2 Ma

dt

dt

Second order differential equation for displacement

Rotational motion

- Normally is the case for electrical drives

Tl

Te Tl

T e , m

J

d Jm

dt

With constant J,

d m

d 2

Te Tl J

J 2

dt

dt

Second order differential equation for angle (or position)

For constant J,

d m

dt

d m

dt

dm

dt

Angular acceleration (speed)

The larger the net torque, the faster the acceleration is.

speed (rad/s)

200

100

0

-100

-200

0.19

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

20

torque (Nm)

Te Tl J

15

10

5

0

0.19

Fe

Fl

Te,

r

Tl

v

Fe Fl M

d v

dt

Te Tl r 2M

Te = r(Fe),

d

dt

linearly moving mass

Tl = r(Fl),

v =r

Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume

Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors

m1

n1

Load 1

Tl1

Motor

Te

J2

m2

J1

n2

Load 2

Tl2

Motor

Te

m1

m

Load 1

Tl1

n1

m2

J1

Motor

Te

n2

J2

Load 2

Tl2

J equ J1 a 22 J 2

Equivalent

Load , Tlequ

Jequ

a2 = n1/n2

SPEED

Synchronous mch

Induction mch

Separately / shunt DC mch

Series DC

TORQUE

can be change at will

Frictional torque (passive load)

SPEED

T~ C

T~ 2

T~

system simultaneously

In most cases, only one or two

are dominating

Exists when there is motion

TORQUE

Coulomb friction

Viscous friction

Turbulent flow friction

Constant torque, e.g. gravitational torque (active load)

SPEED

Gravitational torque

Vehicle drive

Te

TORQUE

TL

gM

FL

TL = rFL = r g M sin

Hoist drive

Speed

Torque

Gravitational torque

At constant speed, Te= Tl

Steady state speed is at point of intersection between Te and Tl of the

steady state torque characteristics

Te

Torque

Tl

Steady state

speed

r3

r1r

r2

Speed

Thermal considerations

Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the

temperature it can withstand.

Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature

Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase):

- Conductor heat losses (i2R)

- Core losses hysteresis and eddy current

- Friction losses bearings, brush windage

Thermal considerations

Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature

does not exceed the temperature limit

Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is

complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes

Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body

Ambient temperature, To

p1

Input heat power

(losses)

Surface, A (m2)

Surface temperature, T (oC)

p2

Emitted heat power

(convection)

Thermal considerations

Power balance:

C

dT

p1 p 2

dt

, where is the coefficient of heat transfer

p 2 A(T To )

Which gives:

dT A

p

T 1

dt

C

C

T

ph

1 e t /

A

, where

C

A

Thermal considerations

ph

A

ph

1 e t /

A

Heating transient

t

T T(0) e t /

T(0)

Cooling transient

Thermal considerations

The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation:

Continuous duty

Load torque is constant

over extended

Continuous

duty period multiple

Short time intermittent duty

Steady state temperature reached

Periodic intermittent duty

Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load

p1n

A

p1n

Thermal considerations

Operation considerably less than time constant,

Motor allowed to cool before next cycle

Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached

Thermal considerations

Short time intermittent duty

p1s

p1

p1n

p1s

A

p1n

A

Tmax

t1

Thermal considerations

Short time intermittent duty

T

T

p1n

A

Tmax

t1

p1s p p1 t /

t /

p11nn p1s 1s1t11 e/ e

p1n A1 eA

t1

p1s

1 e t /

A

Thermal considerations

Load cycles are repeated periodically

Motors are not allowed to completely cooled

Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached

Thermal considerations

p1

heating

coolling

heating coolling

heating coolling

2

T -ve

+ve

Pm -ve

T +ve

+ve

Pm +ve

T -ve

-ve

Pm +ve

T +ve

-ve

Pm -ve

4-quadrant operation

Te

produce positive (forward) speed

Quadrant 2

Forward braking

Quadrant 1

Forward motoring

Quadrant 3

Reverse motoring

Quadrant 4

Reverse braking

Te

speed is arbitrary chosen

Te

T

Te

m

Torque

Transient

torque limit

Continuous

torque limit

transient torque

continuous torque

Maximum

speed limit

Speed

Steady-state stability

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