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cell

adhesion
By
Peter Jon Arguez

 Cell

adhesion is a complex
mechanism involved in a variety of
processes including cell migration &
invasion, embryogenesis, wound
healing and tissue remodeling.
 the binding of a cell to a surface,
extracellular matrix or another cell
using cell adhesion molecules

. proteins located on the cell surface  involved with the binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion  cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings.

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     Extracellular domains – homophilic binding Homophilic binding allows cells that express the same type of cadherin to recognize and attach to each other Intracellular domains – attach to actin cytoskeleton through catenins – so extracellular connections can affect intracellular organization Mutation or downregulation of cadherin is associated with metastasis in cancer. Mechanical agitation in Ca++-free solution is a useful experimental technique to separate tissues into individual cells .

Cadherins attach to the actin-based cytoskeketon through anchor proteins including catenins .

Cadherins connect cells at a desmosome .

Cadherins join adjacent epithelial cells to one another .

 In the presynaptic cell. the two cells become linked by cadherins. catenins organize a release zone for synaptic vesicles with docking site proteins  In the postsynaptic cell.The next slide shows the events of synaptogenesis  A target cell puts out outgrowths called filopodia – as one of them approaches a potential presynaptic neuron’s axon. catenins form a corral in which receptors collect  .

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. Extracellular domain contains multiple subdomains that resemble those of antibody molecules or immunoglobulins  Structure of the subdomains is stabilized by disulfide bonds rather than Ca++. as in cadherins.

a group of Ca2-independent cell-cell adhesion proteins in vertebrates  belong to the immunoglobin(Ig) superfamily of CAMs  reflects their particular importance in nervous tissue  Like cadherins. N-CAMs primarily mediate homophilic interactions. binding together cells that express similar N-CAM molecules  .

N-CAMs from adult tissues contain only one-third as much sialic acid . polysialic acid constitutes as much as 25 percent of the mass of NCAMs. The adhesive properties of N-CAMs are modulated by long chains of sialic acid  In embryonic tissues such as brain. in contrast.

A true specific immune system is largely a vertebrate invention – but metazoans have had cell adhesion molecules for a long time  antibodies and T-cell receptors evolved from Ig-cell adhesion molecules through  splice variations that lacked a membrane anchor – antibodies  Highly variable extracellular domains – antibodies and T-cell receptors .

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cell adhesion proteins that bind sugar polymers Binding is Ca++-dependent Selectins have a major role in inflammation and hemostasis .     a family of cell adhesion molecules (or CAMs All selectins are single-chain transmembrane glycoproteins that share similar properties to Ctype lectins due to a related amino terminus and calcium-dependent binding bind to sugar moieties and so are considered to be a type of lectin.

but is rapidly induced by inflammatory cytokines  L-selectin . except in skin microvessels. E-selectin  (in endothelial cells) not expressed under baseline conditions. (in leukocytes) smallest of the vascular selectins  expressed on all granulocytes and monocytes and on most lymphocytes   P-selectin (in platelets and endothelial cells) the largest selectin  stored in α-granules of platelets and in Weibel–Palade bodies of endothelial cells. and is  translocated to the cell surface of activated endothelial cells and platelets  .

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such as other cells or the extracellular matrix . receptors that mediate the attachment between a cell and the tissues that surround it.

integrins bind to matrix proteins called fibronectins  Integrin binding capability is activated by an inside-to-outside process mediated through the cytoplasmic domain  Integrin binding to extracellular ligand can mediate outside-to-inside signals  .  Generally. etc.Each integrin consists of an alpha and a beta subunit  Integrins connect epithelial cells to their basal lamina or ‘basement membrane’ – muscle cells and neurons to their sheaths.

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it can surround cells (for example muscle fibres have a layer of basal lamina around them). is a specialised form of extracellular matrix. it separates two sheets of cells. also known as the basement membrane. such as the endothelial cells of blood vessels and epithelial cells of another tissue.layers). it lies underneath sheets of epithelial cells  3. This type of arrangement is found in the kidney glomerulus.  2. The basal lamina (lamina . where the basal lamina acts as a permeability barrier or sieve. .  Organised in three ways:  1.

and helps to localise acetylcholine receptors . The exact composition of the basal lamina varies between different types of cell  Kidney  the basal lamina acts as a molecular filter  neuromuscular junction  eparates the nerve cell from the muscle cell at the synapse. and helps to regenerate the synapse after injury.

 If the epithelial cells become transformed (cancerous) and become 'malignant'. they are able to break through the basement membrane and invade the tissues beneath.  . limits contact between epithelial cells and the other cell types in the tissue and acts as a filter allowing only water and small molecules to pass through. This characteristic is one used in the diagnosis of malignant epithelial tumors.The basal lamina provides support to the overlying epithelium.