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Historical Background

Clean air is a blessing of nature and a pre-requisite for the survival


of human life.

Every day, a person, on the average, inhales about 20,000 liters of


air. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals
that have found their way into the air. Air pollution includes all
contaminants found in the atmosphere. These dangerous
substances can either be in the form of gases or particles.

Air pollution can be found both


can be trapped inside buildings,
for a long time.

outdoors and indoors. Pollutants


causing indoor pollution that lasts

Cont... Historical
Background

The sources of air pollution are both natural and man made. As one
might expect, humans have been producing increasing amounts of
pollution as time has progressed, and they now account for the
majority of pollutants released into the air.

Air pollution has been a problem throughout history. Even in Ancient


Rome people complained about smoke put into the atmosphere.
The effects of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution
can have serious consequences for the health of human beings,
and also severely affects natural ecosystems. Air pollution is a
global problem and has been the subject of global cooperation and
conflict.

Some areas suffer more than others from air pollution. Cities with
large numbers of automobiles or those that use great quantities of
coal often suffer most severely from problems of air pollution.

Sources of Air Pollution In Pakistan

Vehicles

Garbage
Burning

Bio-mass Burning

Industry

Natural Dust
Brick Kilns

Domestic
Burning

Stone
Crushers

Vehicular Pollution
Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Smoke, Dust,
Hydrocarbons, etc. are the main components of
vehicular emissions poured into the urban air.

Fuel adulteration and use of ill-maintained


vehicles enhance emissions from motor vehicle
exhaust. A large amount of suspended dust is
generated due to vehicles driving on unpaved
road
shoulders,
poorly
maintained
and
overcrowded roads.

VEHICLE POPULATION IN PAKISTAN


million
1980
0.682
1985
1.288
1990
1.990
1995
2.876
2000
3.997
2004
4.973
RISE SINCE 1980 > 600 %
PRESENT ANNUAL AVERAGE
GROWTH: 12%

PAKISTAN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY


STANDARDS FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST
1. Smoke
40% during engine acceleration at a distance of 6 meters
or more.
2. Carbon Monoxide
New Vehicle = 4.5%
Used Vehicle = 6%

(Under idling conditions)

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Biomass Burning
Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the
form of carbon monoxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs
(volatile organic compounds like benzene, toluene, ethyl
benzene, xylene, etc.), particulates, ground level ozone
(bad ozone) and other pollutants.
Black carbon is a pollutant createdby incomplete
combustion of fossil fuels, bio-fuels, and biomass which
is, possibly the second largest contributor to global
warming.

Emissions From Brick Kilns


Brick kiln producing 800,000 bricks uses large
amount of rubber to start the fire and burns a total of
eight tons fire wood, 200 tons of low quality coal.

The combustion of old rubber Tyres and used mobile


oil in these factories emits hydrocarbons, carbon
monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide and sulphur dioxide.

Natural Dust

Although human-made aerosols (aerosol is a substance


enclosed under pressure and released as a spray)
sometimes are toxic, natural aerosols and dust from
other sources like deserts and volcanoes are important
contributors. Now, new research suggests that natural
aerosols have their downside too and the impact of
natural aerosols on oceans could influence predictions of
future climate change.

Domestic Activities
Domestic burning of fuel i.e. wood, animal dung
especially in rural areas also contributes to air pollution.
The burning of garbage, straw and other things for
domestic use produce air pollution which is often a
cause for some health problems.
Dust arising from small scale domestic activities also
contributes to overall air pollution in the urban areas. In
city centers numerous outside food stalls and
restaurants also cause local air pollution due to frying
meat in oil and roasting on charcoal fires.

Massive Burning Of Solid Waste/Refuse


Approximately 40% of the generated wastes remain at
collection points, or in streets, where they emit a host of
pollutants into the air, making it unacceptable for
breathing.
Also the roadside and on dump burning of the municipal
solid waste creates air pollution problems.
Burning of the waste generates harmful gases which on
inhaling can cause cancers.

Industrial Emissions

Industrial emissions from chimneys is also a source of air pollution


in Pakistan.

In KPK there are about 1500 industrial units which include 305
Chips and Stone Crushers and 450 Brick Kilns.

The industrial units in KPK are scattered over a vast stretch of the
province with greater concentration in and around the cities of
Peshawar, Haripur, Charsadda, Nowshera and Gadoon Amazai.

Emissions from most of the industries are unregulated and


uncontrolled except few industries which have installed treatment
facilities.

Garbage Disposal
In most of the world, including Pakistan, the two ways of
dispensing with ordinary garbage are burn it or bury it.
Neither one is good for us or for the environment.
Burning garbage releases dangerous gases and dust
(particulate matter) which contribute to global warming
and pollute lakes, forests, oceans and cities.
Burying garbage also causes both air and water
pollution, and simply transporting it to the sites
consumes an increasing amount of valuable fossil fuels,
which produces more pollution.

Effects of Air Pollution

Exposure to low levels of pollutants such as ground level


ozone (bad ozone), sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and
particulates, irritates eyes and causes inflammation of
the respiratory tract.
Evidence exists that many air pollutants also suppress
the immune system, increasing susceptibility to infection.
Other health problems that can result from long-term
exposure to toxic air-pollutants are cancer, asthma,
respiratory infections, and cardiovascular disease.

Cont Effects of Air Pollution


Air pollution can also cause acidification of lakes and
soils and impacts on crop productivity, forest growth, and
biodiversity.
A recent research indicates that the ozone and sulphur
dioxide is reducing crop yields.
The potential for crop losses in Asia has been indicated
by a study in Pakistan where a 40 per cent reduction in
rice yields was linked to the presence of pollutants in the
air.

There are various air pollution control technologies and land


use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. At
its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve
zoning and transport infrastructure planning. In most
developed countries, land use planning is an important part of
social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the
benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to
protect the environment.
Efforts to reduce pollution from automobile sources includes
primary regulation, increased fuel efficiency (such as through
the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels.
(such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric
vehicle)

Vehicle Emission Control

Evaporative emissions are the result of gasoline


vapors escaping from the vehicle's fuel system.
In a typical system, vapors from the fuel tank and
carburetor bowl vent (on carbureted vehicles).

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

Particulate control
Mechanical dust collectors
Electrostatic precipitators
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air
cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes
particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of
an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators
are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede
the flow of gases through the device, and can easily
remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke
from the air stream.

POLLUTION CONTROL

Particulate scrubbers
Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology.
The term describes a variety of devices that use
pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas
streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is
brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying
it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or
by some other contact method, so as to remove the
pollutants.

ContAIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES

NOx control

Low NOx burners


NOx scrubbers
Exhaust gas recirculation
Catalytic converter for NOx

VOC abatement

Catalytic converters VOCs


Filters
Absorption (scrubbing)
Vapor recovery systems

ContAIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES


Acid Gas/SO2 control
Wet scrubbers
Dry scrubbers
Flue gas desulfurization
Mercury control
Sorbent Injection Technology
Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
K-Fuel

Ambient Air Quality Standards


Pollutan
ts

USEPA
Avg.
Time

Standard

SO2

24 HRS

365ug/m3
(140 ppb)

CO

8 HRS
1 HR

10 mg/m3
(9ppm)
40 mg/m3

NOX

ANNUAL
MEAN

100 ug/m3
(53ppb)

WHO
Avg.
Time

World Bank

Standard

24 HR
1 HR

90 ug/m3
(34 ppb)
350ug/m3

8 HRS

10mg/m3
(8.7 ppm)

1 HR

190-320
ug/m3

Avg.
Time

NEQS (Pak EPA)

Standard

Avg.
Time

Standard

100ug/m3
(38 ppb)
500ug/m3

ANNUAL
MEAN
24 HRS

80 ug/m3
120 ug/m3

8HRS
1 HR

5 ug/m3
10 ug/m3

ANNUAL
MEAN

100ug/m3
(50ppb)

ANNUAL
MEAN
24 HRS

40 ug/m3
80 ug/m3

ANNUAL
MEANS
24 HRS

8HRS
1 HR

120 ug/m3
200 ug/m3

O3

1 HR

235 ug/m3

TSP

24 HRS

260 ug/m3

24
HRS

150-230
ug/m3

ANNUAL
MEAN
24 HRS

100 ug/m3
500 ug/m3

ANNUAL
MEAN
24 HRS

400 ug/m3
550 ug/m3

PM10

24 HRS

150 ug/m3

Air Pollution Control Legislation in


Pakistan

1. Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance, 1983


2. National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of
Pakistan
3. Pakistan Environment Protection Act, 1997

Pakistan Environmental Protection


Agency
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency is an
attached department of the Ministry of Environment and
is responsible to implement the Pakistan Environmental
Protection Act, 1997 in the country. An Act to provide for
the protection, conservation, rehabilitation and
improvement of environment, for the prevention and
control of pollution, and promotion of sustainable
development.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency also provides
all kind of technical assistance to the Ministry of
Environment for formulation of environment policy and
programs.

EPA Green Certificate


Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA)
under an industrial survey programme component of
Activity Based Capacity Development Project has started
to collect basic information regarding environmental
performance and compliance of all industrial and
commercial units to National Environmental Quality
Standard (NEQS).
Industrial units which conform with the applicable laws
and rules are issued green certificates.

Air Quality Index


The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It indicates
how clean or polluted air is, and what associated health
effects might be of a concern.
EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants, groundlevel ozone, particle pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur
dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, regulated by the Clean Air Act.
For each of these pollutants, EPA has established national air
quality standards to protect public health.
Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two
pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in
Pakistan.

How Does the AQI Work?


Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500.
The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air
pollution and the greater the health concern. For
example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality
with little potential to affect public health, while an AQI
value over 300 represents hazardous air quality.
EPA has suggested a range of 0 to 50 as moderately
good air quality with little to none health concerns.

EPA AND ITS PARTNERS

EPA has other local and foreign partners some of which are,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cleaner Production Program (CPP)


Environmental Protection Department Punjab.
National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON)
The World Conservation Union (IUCN-Pakistan)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-Pakistan)