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The Atmosphere

National Weather Service Shreveport

The Atmosphere
1.Layers of the Atmosphere
2.Air Pressure
3.Transfer of Heat Energy
4.Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance
5.Hydrologic Cycle

The gases that makeup the

Majority of meteors burn up • Thermosphere Ozone Layer .Second lowest layer .Temp increases with height Still would feel cold .Ozone (03) layer .From ~30 to 53 miles up .Temp decreases .Absorbs most of the damaging ultraviolet sunlight (UV-B) • Mesosphere .Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere - Lowest Layer This is where we live 8 to 12 miles in height Weather occurs Temp decreases with height • Stratosphere .

.Radiosondes Radiosondes are released from the inflation building and move up through the atmosphere (20 miles) sending back weather information along the way.Upper Air .

.at 11z and 23z (GMT)..unless otherwise necessary....Launch of a Weather Balloon The balloon with the radiosonde is launched twice daily.

would be always be low pressure and the oceans would be areas of high pressure). • Less molecules (same composition) higher up makes it is harder to breath than at sea level. (otherwise the Rocky Mts.Air Pressure • Density of Molecules decreases with height. • Air Pressure is converted to Sea Level Pressure to observe surface low and high pressures. half of the atmosphere is in the first 18.4 miles. • Pressure also dependent upon Temperature (We will perform an experiment on this) . • Although the atmosphere goes up to 184 miles.000 feet or 3.

Barometers .

26.902 Hurricane Katrina (2005) .Draw Isotherms.64 -.

Surface Pressure .

Items used: .Effect of Heat on Pressure .2 empty 2-liter bottles .Creating Low Pressure .2 Experiments • Crunch Time (5-10 min) .2 empty soda cans .hot tap water • Go with the Flow (3-5 min) .Items used: .Bernoulli’s Principle .

Crunch Time Experiment Capped Bottle eventually collapsed.As atoms loose energy…their velocity decreases resulting in a decrease of pressure in the bottle. WHY?? As air cools inside the bottle. WHY????? .Since the pressure inside the bottle is less than outside…the bottle is crushed. . But why did it collapse… . . outside air moves into the bottle to equalize the pressure on both sides.Cooling takes place because the atoms inside the bottle loose energy as they collide with the bottle side that is exposed to the cooler surrounding air. The uncapped bottle remains unchanged.Air inside that bottle cooled of .

The air blown between the cans created an area of low pressure between the cans and induced high pressure surrounding the cans. This caused the cans to move from high to low pressure. 2.Go with the Flow 1. Air flows from high to low pressure. This is known as Bernoulli’s Principle. .

Radiation 2.Convection .Conduction 3.Transfer of Heat Energy 1.

. rocks. etc. .) absorb this energy and their heat level is raised. sand. water. •Earth is heated by this process.Radiation •The transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic radiation.various substances on earth (dirt. They transmit that heat through mainly convective heat transfer to the surrounding atmosphere. and eventually to us. concrete.

Conduction The transfer of heat energy from one substance to another or within a substance. • Very efective in heating metals • Air is a poor conductor. • .

Convection • The transfer of heat energy in a fluid. • Commonly seen in the kitchen when you see boiling water • Air in the atmosphere acts a fluid .

Convection .Conduction 3.Radiation 2.Transfer of Heat Energy Summary 1.

Thermometers • Cotton Region Shelter – Max and Min Thermometers • Alcohol (min) • Mercury (max) Max Min Temperature System (MMTS) • • Thermistor .

.Temperature Units.

Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance .

The Efects of Clouds • Nighttime: clouds keep the earth warmer • Daytime: clouds keep the earth cooler .

Greenhouse Efect The greenhouse efect is the rise in (air Prevents heat loss mainly from convection temperature that thethe Earth experiences movement carrying away heat) because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor. and methane. carbon dioxide. nitrous oxide. heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. . these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. Because of how they warm our world. Without these gases. for example) trap energy from the sun.

Hydrologic Cycle .

. fog. clouds. • Stepping out of a shower or swimming pool • Transpiration • evaporation of water from plants • Condensation • water vapor returns to a liquid (i. dew or frost) • Precipitation • Runof • Excessive precipitation that cannot be absorbed by the ground.Hydrologic Cycle • Evaporation • change of water from a liquid to a gas. mist..e.

See Hydrologic Cycle in action .Items used: .sandwich bag -glass jar .hot tap water -ice cubes .Experiment • Water Everywhere (10 min) .

Questions A sunburn is caused by which method of heat transfer: A.) Visible Light Answer: Radiation .) Radiation B.) Conduction D.) Convection C.

) Hemisphere E.) Stratosphere C.) Mesosphere Answer: Troposphere .Questions The layer of the atmosphere where most of the world’s weather occurs is: A.) Troposphere D.) Thermosphere B.

A. temperatures will normally be cooler under cloudy skies than under clear skies.) True B.) False Answer: False .Questions At night.

) Evaporation D.) Precipitation B.Questions The brief cloud that forms when you exhale on a cold winter day was formed because of: A.) Condensation E.) Convection C.) Runoff Answer: Condensation .

Radiation B. Condensation.) Rain. condensation. conduction. Precipitation. Flood C. Sunshine.Questions The hydrologic cycle is: A. Condensation.) Evaporation. Transpiration. Runoff Answer: C .) Convection.

that heat was transferred to the handle by: A.) Convection B.) Radiation Answer: Conduction .Questions If you feel the heat in the handle of a cooking pot.) Conduction C.

) easier / more B. A.) harder / more C.Questions It is _____ to breath on top of a mountain than at sea level because there are ______ oxygen molecules at the summit.) easier / less D.) harder / less Answer: harder / less .

Acknowledgments • Jetstream website – Southern Region Headquarters . National Weather Service .noaa.