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MODULE 6: PROBABILITY

DISTRIBUTIONS

INTRODUCTION

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specified probabilities.

In other words, it is a real number connected with the outcome of a

random experiment.

It can be of two types: Discrete and Continuous.

Probability Distribution: Listing of all the possible outcomes of a

random variable with each outcomes associated probability of

occurrence is called probability distribution.

Name of Institution

Probability Distribution

Discrete

Binomial

Poisson

Continuous

Normal

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION

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variable.

The distribution is also known as the outcome of a Bernoulli process

and is associated with the name of Jacob Bernoulli.

A process in which each trial has only two possible outcomes, the

probability of the outcome at any trial remain fixed over time, and

the trials are statistically independent

CONDITIONS FOR

BINOMIAL EXPERIMENT

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1.

for a fixed and finite number of trials, say n.

2.

outcome for any particular trial is not influenced by the outcomes

of the other trials.

3.

outcomes are usually called success and failure.

4.

(so is the probability of failure q, where q=1-p) .

5

BINOMIAL PROBABILITY

FUNCTION

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For a binomial random variable, probability of obtaining exactly xsuccesses in a given number of n Bernoulli trials is given by

P x nC x p x q n x

for x 0,1,2,...., n.

where,

p probabilit y of a success on a sin gle Bernoulli trial .

n number of Bernoulli trials.

x number of success in ' n' trials.

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION

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variation of the binomial distribution and is given by:-V(X)= npq

POISSON DISTRIBUTION

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Poisson.

The Poisson distribution occurs when there are events which do not

occur as outcomes of a definite number of trials of an experiment,

but which occur at random points of time and space, where our

interests lies only in the number of occurrences of the events and not

in its non-occurrences.

The number X of outcomes occurring during a poisson experiment

is called as a poisson random variable, and the distribution that it

follows is termed as the Poisson distribution.

CHARACTERSTICS/ PROPERTIES

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the following properties/characteristics:-1. The number of outcomes occurring in one interval is independent of

the number that occurs in same or any other disjoint time interval.

2. An infinite number of occurrences of the event must be possible in

the interval.

3. In any extremely short portion of interval, probability of two or

more occurrences of the event is negligible.

9

DIFFERENCE

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important aspects:-1. Rather than consisting of fixed number of trials, the distribution

operates continuously over some given amount of time, distance,

area etc.

2. Rather than producing a sequence of successes & failures, the

distribution only focuses on successes, which are known as the

occurrences.

10

POISSON DISTRIBUTION

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assumes only non-negative values, and is given by:--

e x

P( X )

x

where x 0,1,2,..., n.

when p is the constant probability of success for each trial is very

small and n the number of trials is indefinitely large, such that

np=

Mean of Poisson distribution=Variance=

11

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

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by De Moivre.

The normal distribution is also known as the Gaussian Distribution.

Normal distribution is a limiting case of binomial distribution.

When n is very large and neither p nor q is very small, binomial

distribution tends to normal distribution.

Binomial distribution tends to the form of the continuous curve

when n becomes large.

12

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

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P( X )

1

e

2

1 X

where,

X is a random var iable which follows Normal distribution with

mean and S .D. ; X ~ N ( , )

e Cons tan t 2.7183

13

Name of Institution

1.

2.

3.

The total area under the curve and above the horizontal axis is

equal to unity.

4.

Area under the curve on the left of the mean is equal to the area

under curve to the right of the mean.

5.

and 2=3.

6.

14

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standardized normal variable by subtracting the mean and dividing

by S.D.

For a normal distribution with mean and S.D. , the standardized

variable z is given as:--

X

z

which follows Normal distribution with mean 0 and S.D. 1, i.e.,

z ~ N(0, 1)

15

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