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A LC O H O LIS M &

D RUG
Dr. Rahul Netragaonkar
D EP EN D ENAssociate
C E Professor

D rug
Drug is defined as "any substance
that, when living organism, may
modify one or more of its
functions" (WHO).

D rug abuse
"Drug abuse" is defined as self

administration of a drug for nonmedical reasons, in quantities and


frequencies which may impair an
individual's ability to function
effectively, and which may result
in social, physical, or emotional
harm.

D rug dependence
"Drug dependence" is described as a state,

psychic and sometimes also physical,


resulting from the interaction between a living
organism and a drug, characterized by
behavioural and other responses that always
include a compulsion to take the drug on a
continuous or periodic basis in order to
experience its psychic effects, and sometimes
to avoid the discomfort of its absence.
A person may be dependent upon more than
one drugs

Drug abuse is an intense desire to obtain increasing


amounts of a particular substance. Drug dependence
is the body's physical need, or addiction, to a specific
agent. Over the long term, this dependence results in
physical harm and behavior problems which causes
tolerance and cross tolerance. Thus, it creates a

Problem
The non-medical use of alcohol and other

psychoactive drugs has become a matter of


serious concern in many countries.
Alcohol abuse is a more or less universal
problem, the incidence of drug abuse varies
from place to place.
An estimated 12-20 million people smoke
marijuana in the US.
30-50 per cent of all high school students
had made marijuana an accepted part of life.

CONSUMPTION OF
VARIOUS DRUGS

Why do so many Teenagers start down this


potentially Dangerous path ?

A gent factors- D ependence


producing drugs
1. Alcohol
2. Opioids (Heroin)
3. Cannabinoids (Marijuana)
4. Sedatives or hypnotics
5. Cocaine
6. Other stimulants including caffeine
7. Hallucinogens
8. Tobacco
9. Volatile solvents
10. Other psychoactive substances, and
drugs from
different classes used in combination

Legal drugs are not


necessarily safer. A study
in 2010 asked drug-harm
experts to rank various
illegal and legal drugs.
Alcohol was found to be
the most dangerous.

It is believed that
drug abuse only harms
the user but this
graph clearly depicts
that it not just harms
the person but
destroys the whole
family ,his profession,
and life.

AMPHETAMINES AND
COCAINE:

Amphetamines are synthetic drugs,drugs,


structurally similar to adrenaline. In medical
practice, they are used to treat obesity, mild
depression, narcolepsy and certain
behaviour disorders in children.
The ordinary therapeutic dose is 10-30 mg a
day
These drugs act on the central nervous
system. They produce mood elevation,
elation, a feeling of well-being and increased
alertness and a sense of heightened
awareness.
Superman" drugs.

Cocaine
Cocaine is derived from the leaves of the coca

plant.
It was formerly used in medical practice as a
potent local anaesthetic.
Cocaine is a central nervous stimulant. It
produces a sense of excitement, heightened
and distorted awareness and hallucinations.
Unlike amphetamines, it produces no tolerance.
There is a 'no physical dependence; no
withdrawal symptoms', per se.
The chewing of coca leaves is a very common
practice in Bolivia and Peru in South America.

BARBITU RATES
BARBITURATES: If amphetamines

stimulate, barbiturates sedate.


They are a major ingredient in
sleeping pills.
The drug-users generally prefer
short-acting barbiturates such as
pentobarbital and secobarbital to
long acting ones.
The addiction to barbiturates is
one of the worst forms of
suffering. It leads to craving, or

CAN N ABIS
CANNABIS: Most widely.used drug today is

Cannabis, which is a very ancient drug


obtained from the hemp plants - Cannabis
sativa, C. indica and C. americana.
The resinous exudate from the flowering
tops of the female plant contains most of the
active ingredients - called hashish or charas.
The dried leaves and flowering shoots are
called bhang;
The resinous mass from the small leaves and
brackets of inflorescence is called Ganja.

Alcohol:O ur M ost Prim itive Intoxicant

Egypt
Barley beer is probably the oldest drink

in the world with its origin in Egypt prior


to 4200 BC

China
7000 BC - the production of a prehistoric

mixed fermented beverage of rice,


honey and fruit (neolithic village of Jiahu
in Henan province)
2000 BC- unique cereal beverages

H ERO IN
HEROIN: Heroin, morphine, codein,

methadone, pethidine are narcotic


analgesics. Addiction to heroin is
perhaps the worst type of addiction
because it produces craving.
With narcotics generally psychic
dependence is strong and tends to
develop early.
Tolerance to narcotics also occurs
rapidly, making it necessary to take
increasing doses of the drug to

LSD (Lysergic acid diethylam ide)


LSD: (LSD) was synthesized in 1938

by Hoffmann in Switzerland.
LSD is a potent psychotogenic agent.
Although amounts as low as 20-25
may produce subjective disturbances
Oral doses in the range of 100-250
are usually required to effect intense
depersonalization.
LSD alters the normal structuring of
perception.

ALCO H O L
By pharmacological definition, alcohol is a

drug and may be classified as a sedative,


tranquillizer, hypnotic or anaesthetic,
depending upon the quantity consumed.
Of all the drugs, alcohol is the only drug
whose self-induced intoxication is socially
acceptable.
It is not a "stimulant" as long believed, but a
primary and continuous depressant.
Alcohol produces psychic dpendance of
varying degrees from mild to strong.
Physical dependence develops slowly.

Alcoholism is a disease and alcohol a "disease

agent" which causes acute and chronic


intoxication, cirrhosis of the liver, toxic
psychosis, gastritis, pancreatitis, cardiomyopathy
and peripheral neuropathy.
Also, evidence is mounting that it is related to
cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx and
oesophagus.
Further, alcohol is an important etiologic factor in
suicide, automobile and other accidents, and
injuries and deaths due to violence.
The health problems for which alcohol is
responsible are only part of the total social
damage which includes family disorganization,
crime and loss of productivity.

TO BACCO
Tobacco is in legal use

erywhere in the world yet it


causes far more deaths
than all other psychoactive
substances combined.
About 3 miliion premature
deaths a year (6 per cent
of the world total) are
already attributed to
tobacco smoking.
Tooacco isresponsible for
about 30 per cent of all
cancer deaths in developed

TOBACCO

SMOKING

CIGARETTES,
CIGARS,BIDIS

NONSMOKING

KHAINI,TOBACCO LEAF
SNUFF

NICOTINA PALATI

ERYTHROLEUKOPLAKIA

LEUKOPLAKIA

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Passive sm oking
Passive smoking can give rise to other

potentially fatal diseases such as heart


disease and stroke,
Per capita consumption of tobacco is
decreasing slowly in developed
countries.
By contrast, per capita tobacco
consumption is rising in many
developing countries among both men
and women.

H ost factors
Pleasure,
Peer pressure
Desire to experiment,
Sense of adventure,
Wish for self-knowledge,
Desire to escape.
Minor discomforts
Social and psychological maladjustment
The average age of drug users has

decreased considerably in recent years.

Sym ptom s of drug


Loss
of interest
addi
ctionin sports and daily routine;

Loss of appetite and body weight;


Unsteady gait, clumpsy movements, tremors;
Reddening and puffiness of eyes, unclear vision;
Slurring of speech;
Fresh, numerous injection marks
Nausea, vomiting and body pain;
Drowsiness or sleeplessness, lethargy and

passivity;
Acute anxiety, depression, profuse sweating;
Changing mood, temper, tantrums;
Depersonalisation and emotional detachment;
Impaired memory and concentration; and

Environm ental factors


Unemployment
Living away from home
Migration to cities
Relaxed parental control
Alienation from family
Early exposure to drugs
Leaving school early
Broken homes; one
Parent families
Large urban environments
certain occupations (tourism, drug production or

sale)

P revention
Legal approach :
Prohibition of the sale of tobacco products to
minors;
Restriction on the sale of cigarettes from
automatic vending machines;
Prohibition of smoking in schools and other places
frequented by young people;
Prohibition of smoking in public;
Educational approach
Educational programmes for school children and
public
Information campaigns on electronic media.
Community approach
Social, economic, cultural, political factors

Treatm ent
Identification of drug addicts and

their motivation for detoxication


Detoxication (requires
hospitalization)
Post-detoxication : counselling and
follow-up (based on clinic and home
visits)
Rehabilitation.
Simultaneously with medical

R ehabilitation
The rehabilitation of former drug user, regardless of

age, is in most cases a long and difficult process.


Relapses are very frequent.
Success of the treatment necessitates the adoption
of mature and realistic attitude by the local
community and the avoidance of panic, moral
condemnation and discrimination.
Facilities for vocational training and sometimes the
provision of sheltered work opportunities are useful
in rehabilitation and help to prevent relapse.

Thanks