# What’z dat?

• Astrophysics is a branch of science, physics, astronomy etc. • It’s the study of universe ,its formation and properties.

It Containzz !?!
• • • • • Properties of stars Sun Hertzsprung – Russel diagram Stellar evolution Photon Diffusion time

Properties of stars
Brightness Luminosity Temperature Size Mass Density Stellar spectra

Brightness
• Brightness of a star is measured on a scale called magnitude scale. • Introduced by Greek astronomer Hipparchus. • @ his time brightest were called 1st magnitude stars and faintest were 6th magnitude stars. • Magnitude difference of 5 = 100 times the brightness differences.

Brightness of 1st magnitude star =100=(2.512)5 Brightness of 6th magnitude star

• This was modified to include zero and negative and extend beyond 6. • If l1 and l2 are the brightness of 2 stars of magnitude m1 and m2 then m2 - m1 = -2.5 log (l2 / l1 )

Luminosity
• Luminosity of a star is the light energy radiated by it per second in all directions.

Temperature
• Temperature of a star can be estimated by studying the intensity distribution in its spectrum as a function of its wavelength. • The intensity varies with wavelength and is a max for a particular wavelength ( λmax ) for a given star. • The colour corresponding to the value of λmax decides the colour of the star.

• According to the Wein’s law λmax α 1/ T Therefore , λmax T = constant ; where TK is the temperature of the emitter, namely the core of the star. Constant = 2.897 X 10-3 mK Therefore by knowing λmax we can know T.

• Hottest stars appear white or blue and coolest appear red or orange. • Stars are accordingly classified into O,B,A,F,G,K and M . • They are in the order of decreasing temperature and colour varying from blue to red. • Our sun is a G star corresponding to λmax =550nm

Size of Stars
• Size of stars cannot be cannot be calculated by measuring its angular diameter as even when viewed through powerful telescopes they appear as point masses.

• According to Stefan Boltzmann law, E = σT4 where E is the energy emitted per unit area of a star whose temperature is TK and σ is Stefan's constant. • If R radius of the star whose luminosity is L then L = 4πR2E = 4πR2σT4 . knowing the values of T and L , then R can be calculated.

• Radius of most stars lie between 10Rө and 20Rө . where Rө is the radius of the sun, • Radius of giants and super giants lie between 50Rө and 250Rө . • Dwarfs are comparable to earth’s radius.

Kepler’s III law
• The square of the period of revolution of the planet is directly proportional to yhe cube of the semi-major axis of the eliptical orbit. • AA’ is the major axis and OA = OA’ is the semi-major axis. Units are Au and years.
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Mass
• Mass of a Star is calculated by using Kepler’s III law to Binary Stars. • Nearly of the Stars in the Universe are the Binary stars. • Binary stars comprises of two stars bound by the force of gravitation orbiting around the common centre of mass.

• If M1 and M2 are masses of the binary stars, by Kepler’s III law it is shown that M1 + M2 = a3 / T2 ……………… (1) where a is the distance between them in Au and T is the time period of revolution in years. • If a1 and a2 are the distances of the stars from the common centre of mass then M1 a1 = M2 a2 ….………….. (2) • From (1) and (2) we can obtain value of M1 and M2 in terms of solar masses

Density
• As we move from the centre of a star towards the edge then both density and temperature decreases. • Temperature varies from 10million – 30 million. • Density varies from 10 Kg m-3 to a few thousand Kg m-3 .

Stellar Spectra
• The interior of as star emits various kinds radiations of all wavelengths. • As this radiations passes through comparitively cool layers, certain wavelenghts are absorbed. • Hence the spectrum has number of lines. • By studying these spectra the elements present in the astr atmospheres can be determined.

Sun

Sun is the nearest star and the closest object in our solar system.

Stats of Sun
Mean distance (1Au) Radius Magnitude Absolute Apparent Core temperature Pressure Density Mass 41.496 X 108 m 6.9 X 108 m 4.8 - 26.8 15 million K 250 billion atm 150 times water 2 X 1030 Kg

• The surface of the sun is called photosphere which is about 5800K. • A small region called chromosphere is above photosphere. • And above it is corona. And it’s temperature is about 106 K

• Diamond ring _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ ___________ corona

Who heats up the SUN !!#\$@
• The sun gets its energy from nuclear fusion. • Each second 7 X 108 tons of hydrogen is converted to helium. • Energy is given out in the form of γ rays .

If energy is in γ rays then how do we get visible light #\$#!?
• γ rays travel outwards and energy is continuously absorbed and re – emitted at a lower temperature. • By the time they reach the surface they emerge as visible light.

How old are u SON ?#\$#!

When will u die son 

Hertzsprung – Russel diagram
• Hertzsprung and Russel showed that regular pattern is obtained when the absolute magnitude ( measure of luminosity ) is plotted against its surface temperature (color). • In short its called H-R diagram.

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• 90% of stars lie in this strip . • This is called main sequence stars. • Luminosity = Mass3.5 in solar units.

Main sequence stars
• All the stars visible with the naked eye belongs to milky way galaxy. • Most of the stars have same chemical composition but luminosity and surface temperature is characteristic of a given star.

Exceptions
• 10% of stars do not follow the Mass – Luminosity relation . 1.Giants and Supergiants 2.White dwarfs

Giants and Supergiants
• The giants and supergiants are in upper right of the H-R diagram. • These must have large diameter as they are very luminous even though they are cool . • Thus they have large surface area over which energy is radiated.

White Dwarfs

• Even though White Dwarfs are hot they are dim . • Hence they are small having small surface area over which energy is radiated .

Internal temperature of a star
• Assuming that during its contraction a star radiates energy like a black body it obeys Stefan Boltzmann law. • E = σT4 where TK is the temperature of the star. • Assuming that temperature of the core decreases linearly as we move towards the surface , the temperature at a distance r is given by the relation T(r) = Tc where Tc = core temperature

for the star and R is the radius .

Internal pressure of a star
• A star’s pressure is max @ its core and decreases as we move outwards.

• The pressure of a star is , 1. Directly proportional to its mass 2. Inversely proportional to the fourth power of its radius

Stellar evolution
• Stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. • Depending on the mass of the star, this lifetime ranges from only a few million years (for the most massive) to trillions of years (for the least massive)

Oye SON how u born #\$!
• Stellar evolution begins with the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud (GMC). • Typical GMCs are roughly 100 light-years (9.5×1014 km) across and contain up to 6,000,000 solar masses (1.2×1037 kg). • As it collapses, a GMC breaks into smaller and smaller pieces. • As its temperature and pressure increase, a fragment condenses into a rotating sphere of superhot gas known as a protostar.

Birth of a star

Maturity
• The continuous fusion of hydrogen into helium will cause a build-up of helium in the core. • The rate at which this process occurs depends on the initial mass of the star and ranges from millions to billions of years. • Larger, hotter stars produce helium more rapidly than smaller, cooler ones.

Photon Diffusion time
• The γ ray photons produced during the reactions in the core move outwards. • During their motion they collide with free electrons and get scattered, following a zigzag path. • This motion is also called random walk.

• Photon diffusion time is the ratio of the total radiant energy e contained in the volume of the star to the luminosity l of the star. • τ=e l • For the sun τ = 3.46 X 1012 s.

Random walk

It Containzz !?!
• • • • • • Properties of stars Sun Main sequence stars Hertzsprung – Russel diagram Stellar evolution Photon Diffusion time