# HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISM

1. CONDUCTION

∆T
∆x

Q =k.A.
∆x
k.A

HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISM
2. CONVECTION

Q =h.A(T
Rconv =
1
h. A

HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISM

Q =εσAs
T

4
s

CONDUCTION

CONDUCTION

CONDUCTION (SOLUTION)
The roof of an electrically
heated home is 6 m long, 8 m
wide, and 0.25 m thick, and is
made of a flat layer of
concrete whose thermal
conductivity is k = 0.8
W/m.°C. The temperatures of
the inner and the outer
surfaces of the roof one night
are measured to be 15°C and
4°C, respectively. Determine
the rate of heat loss through
the roof that night.

CONVECTION, Q = h A (Ts –
T∞)

CONVECTION (EXAMPLE)
A 2-m-long, 0.3-cm-diameter electrical wire extends
across a room at 15°C, as shown in Fig. 1–33. Heat is
generated in the wire as a result of resistance heating,
and the surface temperature of the wire is measured
to be 152°C in steady operation. Also, the voltage drop
and electric current through the wire are measured to
be 60 V and 1.5 A, respectively. Disregarding any heat
transfer by radiation, determine the convection heat
transfer coefficient for heat transfer between the outer
surface of the wire and the air in the room.

CONVECTION (SOLUTION)
• P = VI = (60 V)(1.5 A) = 90 W
• As = π DL = π (0.003 m)(2 m) = 0.01885
• Q = h A (Ts – T∞)

Q = ε .σ . As .T
4
4
Q = ε σ(Ts − Tsurr )
4
s

Consider a person standing in a
room maintained at 22°C at all
times. The inner surfaces of the
walls, floors, and the ceiling of
the house are at an average
temperature of 10°C in winter
and 25°C in summer.
heat transfer between this
person and the surrounding
surfaces if the exposed surface
area and the average outer
surface temperature of the
person are 1.4 m2 and 30°C.

SIMULTANS MODE

Konveksi = Q1, Q5, Q8
Konduksi = Q2, Q6

COMPOSITE WALL
• Q = ∆ Ttot/Rth,tot
• Rth,tot = Rth,A + Rth,B + Rth,C

COMPOSITE WALL
Q = ∆ Ttot /Rth,tot
Rth,tot = Jabarkan (tugas)

COMPOSITE WALL +
CONVEKSI

COMPOSITE WALL +
CONVEKSI

SILINDER dan BOLA

SILINDER dan BOLA
Silinder
:

Bola :

SILINDER dan BOLA
Komposit

SILINDER Komposit

= (T∞1 – T∞2)/Rtotal

SOAL LATIHAN
• Sebuah lapisan serat kaca tebalnya
13 cm. Beda suhu antara kedua
Konduktivitas termal serat kaca
kalor yang dipindahkan melalui
bahan itu per jam per satuan luas.

JAWAB
• Diketahui serat kaca
o
• X = 13 cm;•1.4
delta
T
85
o C;
W/m. C.
Konduktivitas termal 0.035 W/m.oC.

• Q/A = 22.8 W/m2 = 22.8 W.h/m2

SOAL LATIHAN
• Sebuah dinding dilapisi isolasi
yang memiliki konduktivitas
termal 1.4 W/m.oC setebal 2,5
cm. Suhu bagian dalam isolasi
adalah 315 oC. Suhu udara luar
ke lingkungan secara konveksi.
Hitunglah nilai koefisien
perpindahan panas konveksi (h)
agar suhu permukaan luar

JAWAB
• Q = Q konduksi = Q konveksi
• Q konduksi = k.delta T/ x = 15344 W/m2
• h = (Q/A)/T = 5115 W/m2 OC.

SOAL LATIHAN
• Salah satu sisi dinding mempunyai
suhu 100 oC, sedang sisi lainnya
dengan T = 10 oC dan h = 10
W/m2.oC. Dinding memiliki nilai k =
1.6 W/m.oC dan tebalnya 40 cm.
Hitunglah laju perpindahan kalor
melalui dinding.

JAWAB
• R1 (konduksi) = 0.4/1.6 = 0.25
• R2 (koveksi) = 1/10 = 0.1
• R tot = R1 + R2 = 0.35
• Q = delta T/ R tot = 90/0.35 = 257 W

KONDUKSI DG SUMBER
KALOR
• BIDANG DATAR
• SILINDER
• BOLA

KONDUKSI DG SUMBER
KALOR

KONDUKSI DG SUMBER
KALOR

APLIKASI

SIRIP (NEXT)

CONTOH SIRIP
• LIHAT TABEL 3-4

SIRIP SANGAT PANJANG

PANJANG SIRIP
TERKOREKSI

EFISIENSI SIRIP

EFISIENSI SIRIP

EFISIENSI SIRIP

EFISIENSI SIRIP

EFECTIVITAS SIRIP

EFISIENSI VS EFEKTIVITAS

KONDUKSI DUA DIMENSI
• FAKTOR BENTUK KONDUKSI (S) :
LIHAT TABEL 3-5
• Q = k.S.∆ T

KONDUKSI TRANSIEN
berubah sebagai fungsi waktu.
• Transient (Fana): variabel berubah
sebagai fungsi waktu.
• Konduksi transien: konduksi yang

PENDEKATAN SOLUSI
• Menggunakan metode sistem
tergabung (lumped system), dimana
“temperature of such bodies can be
taken to be a function of time only,
T(t)”
• Parameter: Angka Biot (Bi)
• Kriteria Bi ≤ 0,1

PRINSIP

• T sebagai
fungsi t

Prosedur
• Hitung panjang karakteristik, Lc
• Hitung Angka Biot, Bi

dan

• CONTOH:
Bola
Tembaga

A 7.5 cm diameter orange is subjected to
a cold environment. Assuming that the
orange has properties similar to those of
water at 20 °C and that h = 11 W/m2o C,
determine the suitability of a lumped
analysis for predicting the temperature
of the orange during cooling.

• Solution: From Table B-3 (SI), the
thermal conductivity of water at 20 oC is
0.597 W/m-K. Also, for a sphere