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Microelectronics And IC

Technology
March 21, 2015
Dave A. Anas
PERCDC

History

Microelectronics And IC
Technology
Dave A. Anas

History of EE: Transistor


Collector
J. Bardeen,W. Brattain and W. Shockley, 1939-1947

Base

Emitter

MOSFET

G
S

BJT
B

C
E

History of EE: Integration


Resistor
Capacitor

Inductor

Diode

Transistor

Jack S. Kilby (1958)

Monolithic (one piece) circuits: built form


a silicon substrate

Todays Chips: Moores Law


Gordon Moore, 1965

Number of transistor
per square inch
doubles
approximately
every18 months

Implications

Cost per device halves every 18 months


More transistors on the same area, more complex
and powerful chips
Future chips are very hard to design!!!
Fabrication cost is becoming prohibitive

Todays Chips: An Example


P4 300mm
2.4 Ghz,wafer,
1.5V, 90nm
131mm2
90nm transistor (Intel)

Hair size (1024px)

Signals: Analog vs. Digital


g(t)

f(t)

Analog: Analogous to some physical


quantity

Digital: can be represented using


a finite number of digits

Example of Analog Signal

Voltage (V)

A (440Hz) piano key stroke

Time (s)

Properties:
Dynamic range: maxV minV
Frequency: number of cycles in one second

Analog Circuits
It is an electronic subsystem which
operates entirely on analog signals

i(t)

Amplifier

o(t)

o(t) = K i(t)

Digital Circuits
It is an electronic subsystem which
operates entirely on numbers (using, for
instance, binary representation)
a
b

sum
1-bit
Adder

carry

a
0
0

b
0
1

sum carry
0
0
1
0

Encoding of Digital Signals


We use binary digits
Two values: {0 , 1}

Positional system
Encoded by two voltage levels
+1.5 V 1 , 0 V 0
+1.5 V

5 101

1
threshold

0V

noise margin

+1.5 V
0V
+1.5 V

Why Digital?
Digital signals are easy and cheap to
store
Digital signals are insensible to noise
Boolean algebra can be used to
represent, manipulate, minimize logic
functions
Digital signal processing is easier and
relatively less expensive than analog
signal processing

Digital Representation of Analog Signals


Problem: represent f(t) using a finite
number of binary digits
Example: A key stroke using 6 bits
Only 64 possible values, hence not all
values can be represented

Quantization error: due to finite


number of digits
Time sampling: time is continuous but
we want a finite sequence of numbers
Lect. 1 - 06/21/2004

Alessandro Pinto, EE40 Summer 2004

13

Digital Representation of Analog Signals


f(t)

Dynamic Range: [-30,30] V


Precision: 5 V

Sampling

1011
0100
0101
0110
0001
0010
1001
1100
0100
0011
0010
0011

Result

1100
1011
1010
1001
1000
0111
0110
0101
0100
0011
0010
0001
0000

Quantization

-5V
-10V
-15V
-20V
-25V
-30V

Digital Representation of Logic Functions


Boolean Algebra:

Variables can take values 0 or 1 (true or


false)
Operators on variables:
a AND b
a OR b
NOT b

ab
a+b
b

Any logic expression can be built using


these basic logic functions
Example: exclusive OR

Full Adder Example


a
b

sum
1-bit
Adder

carry

a
0
0

b
0
1

1
1

0
1

sum carry
0
0
1
0
1
0

0
1

TAKE NOTE!
-Analog signals are representation of physical
quantities
-Digital signals are less sensible to noise than
analog signals
-Digital signals can represent analog signals
with arbitrary precision (at the expense of
digital circuit cost)
-Boolean algebra is a powerful mathematical
tool for manipulating digital circuits

Common Application

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Cellular Technology

An important example of microelectronics.


Microelectronics exist in black boxes that process the
received and transmitted voice signals.

Frequency Up-conversion

Voice is up-converted by multiplying two sinusoids.


When multiplying two sinusoids in time domain, their
spectra are convolved in frequency domain.

Transmitter

Two frequencies are multiplied and radiated by an antenna


in (a).
A power amplifier is added in (b) to boost the signal.

Receiver

High frequency is translated to DC by multiplying by fC.


A low-noise amplifier is needed for signal boosting without
excessive noise.

Microelectronics Technology
>>>Semiconductor Processing<<<
>>> Semiconductor
Characterization<<<

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

What is Microelectronics?
- Microelectronics is a subfield
of electronics.
- Microelectronics is the study
and manufacture of electronic
components which are very
small.
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Dave A. Anas

Real Small Components

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Very Complex

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Different Approache

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Factors that Affect


Semiconductor Fabrication
Proper material for the purpose
Geometry
Material growth and removal by
the help of lithography

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Dave A. Anas

Simple example :
MESFET
Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect
Transistor

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CMOS Inverter

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Dave A. Anas

Silicon Technology
Process Involved
Crystal (substrate) growth
Oxidation
Diffusion & implantation
Material growth (metal evaporation,
sputtering, vapor deposition, epitaxy)
Lithography & etching

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Dave A. Anas

Substrate Formation
Different Methods of Substrate
Formation
Czochralski
Majority of the wafers

Floating zone (high purity)


High purity low oxygen & carbon impurity
More complex w.r.t. Czochralski

Bridgman
Easy (melting & cooling)
Low quality

Drip melting,
strain annealing and
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others
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Czochralski growth

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Ingot By Czochralski
Method

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Czochralski Growth
CHARACTERISTICS
Typically used for Silicon but also used for
Single crystal semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs)
Metals (Pd, Pt, Ag, Au)
Salts etc

Requires seed crystal


Fast (1-2 mm/min)
PROBLEMS
Oxygen contamination from crucible
Uniformity of axial resistivity is poor
Segregation problems
for dopants
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Dave A. Anas

Steps Involved

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Processes Involved

CVD LPCVD (chemical vapor deposition (film


growth)
Thermally grown oxide (Oxidation)
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Photoresist (Lithography
& IC
etching)
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Dave A. Anas

Thermal SiO2 Properties

Thermal SiO2 Properties (cont.)

Oxidation Process
Oxidation Techniques
Thermal Oxidation
Rapid Thermal Oxidation
Thermal Oxidation Techniques
Wet Oxidation
Si (solid) + H20

SiO2 (solid) + 2H2

Dry Oxidation
Si (solid) + O2 (gas)

SiO2(solid)

Conceptual Si Oxidation System


Thermal Oxidation
Heat is added to the oxidation tube during the reaction
..between oxidants and silicon
- 900-1,200C temperature range
- Oxide growth rate increases as a result of heat
Used to grow oxides between 60-10,000

Dry vs Wet Thermal


Oxidation
Wet Thermal Oxidation Characteristics
Oxidant is water vapor
Fast oxidation rate
- Oxide growth rate is 1000-1200 / hour
Preferred oxidation process for growth of thick oxides
Dry Thermal Oxidation Characteristics
Oxidant is dry oxygen
Used to grow oxides less than 1000 thick
Slow process
- 140 - 250 / hour

Functions of Oxide Layers (1)


Passivation
Physically protects wafers from scratches and particle
..contamination
Traps mobile ions in oxide layer

Function of Oxide Layers (2)


Masking
During Diffusion, Ion Implantation, and Etching

SiO2

Function of Oxide Layers (3)


Insulating Material
Gate region
- Thin layer of oxide
- Allows an inductive charge to pass between gate
metal and silicon

Function of Oxide Layers (4)


Dielectric Material
Insulating material between metal layers
- Field Oxide

Function of Oxide Layers (5)


Dielectric Material
Tunneling oxide
- Allows electrons to pass through oxide without
resistance

Oxidation
Main advantages of SiGe compared to Si:
A. Mobility
B. Power Consumption

(oxygen must diffuse through the oxide to


react at the Si/SiO2 interface, so rate
depends on the thickness of the oxide and
reduces as the oxidation progresses.)
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Dave A. Anas

Oxidation
Thermal Oxidation is performed in furnaces at
temperatures between 800 and 1200C
Many wafers on the boat (a quartz rack) at the
same time

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Dave A. Anas

Oxidation : dry vs. wet


Dry (molecular oxygen) : better oxide but
slow (gate oxide)
Wet (steam water vapor) : fast but porous
(isolation)

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Dave A. Anas

Oxidation

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Lithography & Pattern


Transfer
Used for pattern transfer into metals, oxides and
semiconductors
Thin film deposition and lithography (including photo and
e-beam, wet etching and lift-off) are the most
frequently used method in labs

Types of resists:
Positive : PR pattern is same as mask. On exposure to
light, light degrades the polymers resulting in the
photoresist being more soluble in developers. The PR
can be removed in inexpensive solvents such as
acetone.
Negative : PR pattern
is the inverse
Microelectronics
And IC of the mask. On
Technology
exposure to light, light
polymerizes the rubbers in the
Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer

Black areas (PR) are the


openings after development of
PR
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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer
Processes in doing
Lithography:

Dehydration bake or pre-bake


Adhesion promoter (i.e. HMDS)
Apply resist spinner
Soft bake
UV-exposure with mask
Post-bake
Post processing such as development &
etching & lift-off
Other processes required by specific needs
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(MEMS)
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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer
Baking

Spinner

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Lithography & Pattern


Transfer
Expose

Develop

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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern Transfer :


Uses of lithography

Etching Processes: open windows in oxides for diffusion,


masks for ion implantation, etching, metal contact to the
semiconductor, or interconnect.
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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer

Lift off Processes: Metalization

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Lithography & Pattern


Transfer
Issues with photolithography
Resolution : feature size (~0.5 micron
usually)
Shorter wavelength = better resolution
Registration : alignment of different
layers on the same wafer (~ 1/3 of the
resolution or 0.06 micron)
Throughput : effective cost and time
Resist thickness ~ 1/spin speed
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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer

Photolithography systems
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Lithography & Pattern


Transfer

Contact Resist is in contact with the mask: 1:1


magnification
Inepensive, relatively high resolution (~ 0.5 micron),
contact with the mask (scratches, particles and dirt are
imaged in the wafer)
Proximity Resist is almost but not in contact with
the mask: 1:1 magnification
Inexpensive, low resolution (~ 1-2micron), diffraction
effects limit accuracy of pattern transfer. Less
repeatable than contact methods,
Projection Mask image is projected a distance
from the mask and de-magnified to a smaller image:
1:4 -1:10magnification
Can be very high resolution (~0.07 um or slightly
better), No mask contact results in almost no mask wear
(high production compatible), mask defects or particles
on mask are reduced in size on the wafer. Extremely
expensive and complicated
equipment,
Diffraction
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effects limit accuracyTechnology
of pattern transfer
Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern


Transfer

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Dave A. Anas

Lithography & Pattern Transfer :


Light sources
Typically mercury (Hg)- Xenon (Xe)
vapor bulbs are used as a light
source in visible (>420 nm) and
ultraviolet (>250-300 nm and
<420 nm) lithography equipment
Lasers are used to increase
resolution, and decrease the
optical complexity for deep
ultraviolet (DUV) lithography
systems.
Excited dimer (Excimer or Exiplex)
Microelectronics And IC
pulsed lasers
are typically used.
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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation

Dopants for N+ and P+ regions (implantation &


diffusion)
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Diffusion & Implantation

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Diffusion & Implantation

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Diffusion & Implantation

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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation


What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the spontaneous net movement of


particles from an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration (particle
penetration from surface into the wafer)

Commonly used for

Bipolar technology (base, emitters)


FET (source, drain)

Used when

Ion implantation damage is not acceptable


Deep junctions are needed
Cheap & easy solutions are seeked
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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation :


Types of diffusion

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Instertital
Vacancy
Interstitialcy
Kick-out
Dissociative

Diffusion & Implantation


Diffusion
depends on:
Diffusion time
Diffusion
constant
(diffusivity)
Material density
TemperatureMicroelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation


Ion implantation :
Ions (charged atoms or molecules) are created
via an enormous electric field stripping away
an electron.
These ions are filtered and accelerated toward
a target wafer, where they are buried in the
wafer.
The depth of the implantation depends on the
acceleration energy (voltage).
The dose is very carefully controlled by
integrating the measured ion current.
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation

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Diffusion & Implantation


Advantages

Very precise control of the dose and position


Independent control of impurity depth and dose
Very fast (just few seconds)
Complex profiles can be achieved by multiple &
sequential implantations

Disadvantages

Very deep and very shallow profiles are difficult


Not all the damage can be corrected by annealing.
Typically has higher impurity content than diffusion.
Often uses extremely toxic gas sources such as arsine
(AsH3), and phosphine (PH3).
expensive
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Dave A. Anas

Diffusion & Implantation

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Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
Inverter

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Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
Inverter

Microelectronics And IC
Technology
Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
Inverter

Poly-Si deposition (LPCVD)


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Dave A. Anas

Film deposition & growth


Physical deposition
Thermal evaporation
E-beam evaporation
Sputtering

Chemical vapor deposition


CVD
LPCVD
PECVD

Epitaxial growth
MBE
MOCVD
CBE
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Dave A. Anas

Thermal & E-beam


Evaporation
The source material is evaporated in a vacuum.
The vapors other than the source material are
almost entirely removed before the process
begins.
The vacuum allows vapor particles to travel
directly to the target object (substrate), where
they condense back to a solid state.
Advantages

High purity (good for Schottky contacts), simple, easy &


cheap, fast, low vacuum (10-4)

Disadvantages

Poor alloy formation, step coverage problems, low throughput


(low vacuum), relatively non-uniform deposition, non-smooth
surfaces, short mean free path (~60m), high temperatures.
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Thermal & E-beam


Evaporation
Thermal

E-beam

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Dave A. Anas

Sputtering

A "target" made of the material to be deposited is


bombarded by energetic ions which will dislodge
atomes of the target, i.e., "sputter them off".
The dislodged atoms will have substantial kinetic
energies, and some will fly to the substrate to be
coated and stickMicroelectronics
there.
And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Sputtering
Advantages

The target atoms hit the substrate with


an energy large enough so they "get
stuck", but not so large as to liberate
substrate atoms. Sputtered layers
therefore usually stick well to the
substrate (in contrast to other
techniques, most notably evaporation
All atoms of the target will become
deposited, in pretty much the same
composition as in the target. It is thus
possible, e.g., to deposit a silicide slightly
off the stoichiometric composition
The target atoms hit the substrate
coming fromMicroelectronics
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Homogeneous coverage
of the substrate
Dave A. Anas

Sputtering
Disadvantages

Sputtered layers usually have a very bad


crystallinity - very small grains full of defects or
even amorphous layers result. Usually some kind
of annealing of the layers is necessary to restore
acceptable crystal quality.
Sputtering works well for metals or other
somewhat conducting materials. It is not easy or
simply impossible for insulators. Sputtering SiO2
layers, e.g., has been tried often, but never
made it to production (Zn-oxide, tin-oxide etc.
are easily achieved however)

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Dave A. Anas

Chemical Vapor
Deposition

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Dave A. Anas

the substrate is
placed inside a
reactor to which a
number of gases
are supplied.
a chemical
reaction takes
place between the
source gases.
The product of
that reaction is a
solid material with
condenses on all
surfaces inside the
reactor.

4 Categories of CVD
1. Atmospheric Pressure (APCVD)
Advantages: High deposition rates, simple,
high throughput
Disadvantages: Poor uniformity, purity is
less than LPCVD
Thick oxides
2. Low Pressure (LPCVD, 0.2 20 Torr)
Poly-silicon deposition, dielectric layer and
doped dielectric deposition.
Advantages: Excellent uniformity, purity
Disadvantages: Lower (but reasonable)
deposition rates than APCVD
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Dave A. Anas

4 Categories of CVD
3. Metal Organic (MOCVD) alternative for
MBE
Advantages.: Highly flexible
(semiconductors, metals, dielectrics)
Disadvantages: Highly toxic, very expensive
source material, environmental disposal
costs are high.
4. Plasma Enhanced (PECVD)
dielectric coating such as silicon nitride
Advantages.: Uses low temperatures
necessary for rear end processing.
Disadvantages: Plasma damage typically
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results
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Dave A. Anas

Epitaxy
We can grow crystalline semiconductors
by raising the temperature to allow
more surface migration and by using a
crystalline substrate
growth!= deposition
The lattice constant of the epitaxially
grown layer needs to be close to the
lattice constant of the substrate wafer.
Otherwise the bonds can not stretch far
enough and dislocations will result.
Advantages : Very high quality,
extremely clean samples,crystallinity,
very long mean
free path
Microelectronics
And IC (few hundred
Technology
meters), preciseDave
atomic
layer deposition
A. Anas

Epitaxy

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Dave A. Anas

Vacuum
A vacuum is a volume of space that is
essentially empty of matter such that its
gaseous pressure is much less than standard
atmospheric pressure.
A perfect vacuum with a gaseous pressure of
absolute zero is a philosophical concept that is
never observed in practice
quantum theory predicts that no volume of
space can be perfectly empty in this way.
The quality of a vacuum is measured in relation
to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum.
The residual gas pressure is the primary
indicator of quality, and is most commonly
measured in units called torr
The average distance between collisions (mean
free path)
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Vacuum

Vacuum quality is subdivided into ranges according


to the technology required to achieve it or measure
it. These ranges do not have universally agreed
definitions (hence the gaps below), but a typical
distribution is as follows:

Torr
Torr

Atmospheric
Low vacuum
Medium vacuum
High vacuum

760 Torr
760 to 25 Torr
25 to 110-3 Torr
110-3 to 110-9

Ultra high vacuum


Extremely high vacuum
Outer Space 110-6 to
Perfect vacuum

110-9 to 110-12
<110-12 Torr
<310-17 Torr
0 Torr

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Vacuum pumps
Rough & medium vacuum
Piston pumps (particle problems)
Rotary vane pumps (cheap)
Dry pumps

High vacuum & UHV

Diffusion (oil contamination)


Turbo
Cryo
Ion (low pumping speed & capacity)
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Dave A. Anas

Transfer pumps
Rotary pump (mechanical)

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Vacuum pumps
Turbomolecular pumps

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Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
inverter

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Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
inverter

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Dave A. Anas

Fabrication of a CMOS
inverter

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Dave A. Anas

Inverter After few


steps

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Dave A. Anas

Microelectronics Design

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Dave A. Anas

The Start of the Modern Electronics


Era

Bardeen,Shockley,andBrattainat
BellLabsBrattainandBardeen
inventedthebipolartransistorin1947.

Thefirstgermaniumbipolar
transistor.Roughly50yearslater,
electronicsaccountfor10%(4trillion
dollars)oftheworldGDP.

Electronics Milestones
1874 Braun invents the solid-state
rectifier.
1906 DeForest invents triode
vacuum tube.
1907-1927
First radio circuits developed
from diodes and triodes.
1925 Lilienfeld field-effect device
patent filed.
1947 Bardeen and Brattain at Bell
Laboratories invent bipolar
transistors.
1952 Commercial bipolar transistor
production at Texas
Instruments.
1956 Bardeen, Brattain, and
Shockley receive Nobel prize.

1958 Integrated circuits developed


by Kilby and Noyce
1961 First commercial IC from
Fairchild Semiconductor
1963 IEEE formed from merger of IRE
and AIEE
1968 First commercial IC opamp
1970 One transistor DRAM cell
invented by Dennard at IBM.
1971 4004 Intel microprocessor
introduced.
1978 First commercial 1-kilobit
memory.
1974 8080 microprocessor
introduced.
1984 Megabit memory chip
introduced.
2000 Alferov, Kilby, and Kromer
share Nobel prize

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000


was awarded "for basic work on
information and communication
technology" with one half jointly
to Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert
Kroemer "for developing
semiconductor heterostructures
used in high-speed- and optoelectronics" and the other half to
Jack S. Kilby "for his part in the
And IC
invention of Microelectronics
theTechnology
integrated
Chap1101
Microelectronic Circuit Design, 4E
McGraw-Hill

Dave A. Anas

Evolution of Electronic
Devices
Vacuum
Tubes

Discrete
Transistors

SSIandMSI
Integrated
Circuits

VLSI
SurfaceMount
Circuits

Microelectronics
Proliferation
The integrated circuit was invented in 1958.
World transistor production has more than
doubled every year for the past twenty
years.
Every year, more transistors are produced
than in all previous years combined.
Approximately 1018 transistors were
produced in a recent year.
Roughly 50 transistors for every ant in the
world.
*Source: Gordon Moores Plenary address at the 2003
Microelectronics And IC
MicroelectronicCircuitDesign,4E
International Solid
State
Circuits Conference.
Technology
McGrawHill
Dave A. Anas

Device Feature Size


Feature size
reductions enabled
by process
innovations.
Smaller features lead
to more transistors
per unit area and
therefore higher
density.

Rapid Increase in Density of


Microelectronics

Memorychipdensity
versustime.

Microprocessorcomplexity
versustime.

Signal Types
Analog signals take
on continuous values
- typically current or
voltage.
Digital signals
appear at discrete
levels. Usually we
use binary signals
which utilize only
two levels.
One level is referred
to as logical 1 and
logical 0 is assigned
to the other level.

Analog and Digital Signals

Analog signals are


continuous in time
and voltage or
current. (Charge can
also be used as a
signal conveyor.)

After digitization, the


continuous analog
signal becomes a set
of discrete values,
typically separated
by fixed time
intervals.

Digital-to-Analog (D/A)
Conversion
VFS = Full ScaleVoltage

For an n-bit D/A converter, the output voltage


is expressed as:

VO (b1 21 b2 22 ... bn 2n )VFS

The smallest possible voltage change is known


as the least significant bit or LSB.
n

LSB
FS

V 2 V

Analog-to-Digital (A/D)
Conversion

Analog input voltage vx is converted to the nearest n-bit


number.
For a four bit converter, 0 vx input yields a 0000
1111 digital output.
Output is approximation of input due to the limited
resolution of the n-bit output. Error is expressed as:

V v x (b1 21 b2 22 ... bn 2n )VFS

A/D Converter Transfer


Characteristic

V v x (b1 21 b2 22 ... bn 2n )VFS


MicroelectronicCircuitDesign,4E
McGrawHill

Chap1110

Exercises

A 10-bit D/A converter has VFS =


5.12 V. What is the output voltage
for a binary input code of
(1100010001)? What is VLSB?
What is the size of the MSB?
Microelectronics And IC
MicroelectronicCircuitDesign,4E
Technology
McGrawHill
Dave A. Anas

Chap1111

Exercises
A 10-bit D/A converter has VFS =
5.12 V. What is the output voltage
for a binary input code of
(1100010001)? What is VLSB?
What is the size of the MSB?
3.925 V; 5 mV; 2.56 V
Microelectronics And IC
MicroelectronicCircuitDesign,4E
Technology
McGrawHill
Dave A. Anas

Chap1112

Exercises

An 8-bit A/D converter has VFS


= 5 V. What is the digital output
code word for an input of 1.2 V?
What is the voltage range
corresponding to 1 LSB of the
converter?
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Chap1113

Exercises
An 8-bit A/D converter has VFS
= 5 V. What is the digital output
code word for an input of 1.2 V?
What is the voltage range
corresponding to 1 LSB of the
converter?
00111101; 19.5 mV
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Chap1114

Notational Conventions
Total signal = DC bias + time varying
signal

vT VDC vsig

iT I DC isig
Resistance and conductance - R and G
with same subscripts will denote
reciprocal quantities.
Most
1
1
G xform

will
and
g used

convenient
be
Rx
r within
expressions.
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What are Reasonable


Numbers?

If the power supply is 10 V, a calculated DC


bias value of 15 V (not within the range of the
power supply voltages) is unreasonable.
Generally, our bias current levels will be
between 1 A and a few hundred milliamps.
A calculated bias current of 3.2 amps is probably
unreasonable and should be reexamined.
Peak-to-peak ac voltages should be within the
power supply voltage range.
A calculated component value that is unrealistic
should be rechecked. For example, a resistance
equal to 0.013 ohms.
Given the inherent
variations
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components, three
significant
digits are
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Circuit Theory: Voltage Division


v1 ii R1

and

v 2 ii R2

ApplyingKVL(Kirchhoffsvoltage
law)totheloop,

v i v1 v 2 ii (R1 R2 )
and

ii

vi
R1 R2

Combiningtheseyieldsthebasicvoltagedivisionformula:

R1
v1 v i
R1 R2

R2
v2 vi
R1 R2

Circuit Theory: Voltage Division


(cont.)
Usingthederivedequations
withtheindicatedvalues,

8 k
v1 10 V
_____ V
8 k 2 k
2 k
v2 10 V
____ V
8 k 2 k

Kirchhoff's voltage law


(KVL)
The principle of conservation of
energy implies that
The directed sum of the electrical
potential differences (voltage) around
any closed circuit is zero.

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Chap1119

Circuit Theory: Current


Division
ii i1 i2

where

vi
i1
R1

vi
and i2
R2

Combiningandsolvingforvs,

R1R2
v i ii
ii
ii R1 || R2
1
1
R1 R2


R1 R2
Combiningtheseyieldsthebasiccurrentdivisionformula:

R2
i1 ii
R1 R2

and

R1
i2 ii
R1 R2

Circuit Theory: Current Division


Usingthederivedequations
withtheindicatedvalues,

3 k
i1 5 ma
____ mA
2 k 3 k
2 k
i2 5 ma
_____ mA
2 k 3 k

Kirchhoff's current law


(KCL)
The principle of conservation of
electric charge implies that:
At any node (junction) in an electrical
circuit, the sum of currents flowing into
that node is equal to the sum of currents
flowing out of that node.

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Circuit Theory: Thvenin and Norton


Equivalent Circuits

Thvenin

Norton

Thvenin Equivalent Circuits


The Thvenin-equivalent voltage
is the voltage at the output
terminals of the original circuit.

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Thvenin Equivalent
Circuits
The Thvenin-equivalent resistance is the
resistance measured across points A and B
"looking back" into the circuit.
It is important to first replace all voltage- and
current-sources with their internal
resistances.
For an ideal voltage source, this means
replace the voltage source with a short circuit.
For an ideal current source, this means
replace the current source with an open
circuit.
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Circuit Theory: Find the Thvenin


Equivalent Voltage
Problem: Find the Thvenin
equivalent voltage at the
output.

Circuit Theory: Find the Thvenin


Equivalent Voltage

v th 0.718v i

Circuit Theory: Find the Thvenin


Equivalent Resistance
Problem: Find the Thvenin
equivalent resistance at
the output.

Circuit Theory: Find the Thvenin


Equivalent Resistance

Testvoltagevxhasbeenaddedtothe
previouscircuit.Applyingvxandsolving
forixallowsustofindtheThvenin
resistanceasvx/ix.

Circuit Theory: Find the Thvenin


Equivalent Resistance

Rth 282

Norton Equivalent
Circuits
Calculate the output current, IAB,
with a short circuit as the load.

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Circuit Theory: Find the Norton


Equivalent Resistance
Problem: Find the Norton
equivalent current
sourceat the output.

Circuit Theory: Find the Norton


Equivalent Circuit

Ashortcircuithasbeenapplied
acrosstheoutput.TheNorton
currentisthecurrentflowing
throughtheshortcircuitatthe
output.

Circuit Theory: Find the Norton


Equivalent Circuit (cont.)

50 1
vi
in
vi
(2.55mS)v i
20k
392

Final Thvenin and Norton


Circuits

CheckofResults:
Notethatvth=inRthandthiscanbeusedtocheckthecalculations:
inRth=(2.55mS)vi(282)=0.719vi,accuratewithinroundofferror.
Whilethetwocircuitsareidenticalintermsofvoltagesandcurrentsat
theoutputterminals,thereisonedifferencebetweenthetwo
circuits.

Frequency Spectrum of
Electronic Signals
Non repetitive signals have continuous
spectra often occupying a broad range of
frequencies
Fourier theory tells us that repetitive
signals are composed of a set of
sinusoidal signals with distinct amplitude,
frequency, and phase.
The set of sinusoidal signals is known as a
Fourier series.
The frequency spectrum of a signal is the
amplitude and phase components of the
signal versus frequency.
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Frequencies of Some Common


Signals

Audible sounds
20 Hz - 20 KHz
Baseband TV
0 - 4.5 MHz
FM Radio
88 - 108 MHz
Television (Channels 2-6)
54 - 88 MHz
Television (Channels 7-13)
174 - 216 MHz
Maritime and Govt. Comm.
216 - 450 MHz
Cell phones and other wireless1710 - 2690
MHz
Satellite TV
3.7 - 4.2 GHz
Wireless Devices
5.0 - 5.5 GHz
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Fourier Series

Any periodic signal contains spectral components only at


discrete frequencies related to the period of the original signal.
A square wave is represented by the following Fourier series:
v(t) VDC

2VO
1
1

sin 0 t sin 3 0 t sin 5 0 t ...


3
5

0=2/T(rad/s)isthefundamentalradianfrequency
f0=1/T(Hz)isthefundamentalfrequencyofthesignal.
2f0,3f0,and4f0arecalledthesecond,third,andfourthharmonicfrequencies

Amplifier Basics
Analog signals are typically manipulated
with linear amplifiers.
Although signals may be comprised of
several different components, linearity
permits us to use the superposition
principle.
Superposition allows us to calculate the
effect of each of the different components
of a signal individually and then add the
individual contributions to the output.
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Amplifier Linearity
v i Vi sin( i t )

Givenaninputsinusoid:
Foralinearamplifier,theoutputisat
thesamefrequency,butdifferent
amplitudeandphase.

Inphasornotation:

Amplifiergainis:

v o Vo sin( i t )
v i Vi

v o Vo( )

v o Vo( ) Vo
A


vi
Vi
Vi

Amplifier Input/Output
Response
vi=sin2000tV
Av=5
Note:negative
gainisequivalent
to180degreesof
phaseshift.

Ideal Operational Amplifier (Op


Amp)
Idealopampsareassumedtohave
infinitevoltagegain,and
infiniteinputresistance.
Theseconditionsleadtotwoassumptionsusefulinanalyzing
idealopampcircuits:(VGP)
1.Thevoltagedifferenceacrosstheinputterminalsiszero.
2.Theinputcurrentsarezero.

Ideal Op Amp Example


Writingaloopequation:

v i ii R1 i2 R2 v o 0
vi v
ii i2
R1
vi
ii
R1

Fromassumption2,weknowthati=0.

Assumption1requiresv=v+=0.

vo
R2
Av
vi
R1

Combiningtheseequationsyields:

Ideal Op Amp Example


(Alternative Approach)
vi
v v o v o
ii
i2

R1
R2
R2
v i v o

R1 R2

FromAssumption2,i2=ii:

Yielding:

vo
R2
Av

vi
R1

Amplifier Frequency
Response
Amplifierscanbedesignedtoselectivelyamplifyspecific
rangesoffrequencies.Suchanamplifierisknownasafilter.
Severalfiltertypesareshownbelow:

LowPass

HighPass

BandPass

BandReject

AllPass

Circuit Element
Variations
All electronic components have
manufacturing tolerances.
Resistors can be purchased with 10%, 5%,
and
1% tolerance. (IC resistors are often 10%.)
Capacitors can have asymmetrical tolerances
such as +20%/-50%.
Power supply voltages typically vary from 1%
to 10%.

Device parameters will also vary with


temperature and age.
Circuits must be designed to
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Dave A. Anas

Tolerance Modeling
For symmetrical parameter
variations
Pnom(1 - ) P Pnom(1 + )
For example, a 10K resistor with
5% percent tolerance could take
on the following range of values:
10k(1 - 0.05) R 10k(1 +
0.05)
9,500 MicroelectronicCircuitDesign,4E
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R 10,500

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Worst Case Analysis


Example
Problem: Find the nominal
and worst-case values for
output voltage and source
current.
Solution:
Known Information and
Given Data: Circuit
topology and values in
figure.
Unknowns: VOnom, VOmin ,
VOmax, IInom, IImin, IImax .
Approach: Find nominal
values and then select R1,
R2, and VI values to
generate extreme cases
of the unknowns.
Assumptions: None.
Analysis: Next slides

Nominalvoltagesolution:
nom
R
VOnom VInom nom 1 nom
R1 R2
18k
15V
5V
18k 36k

Worst-Case Analysis
Example
NominalSourcecurrent:
VInom
15V
nom
II nom

278 A
R1 R2nom 18k 36k
RewriteVOtohelpusdeterminehowtofindtheworstcasevalues.

R1
VI
VO VI

R2
R1 R2
1
R1
max
O

VOismaximizedformaxVI,R1andminR2.
VOisminimizedforminVI,R1,andmaxR2.

15V (1.1)

5.87V
36K(0.95)
1
18K(1.05)

min
O

15V (0.95)

4.20V
36K(1.05)
1
18K(0.95)

Worst-Case Analysis
Example
Worstcasesourcecurrents:

IImax

VImax
15V (1.1)
min

322 A
min
R1 R2
18k(0.95) 36k(0.95)

min
I

VImin
15V (0.9)
max
238 A
max
R1 R2
18k(1.05) 36k(1.05)

Temperature Coefficients
Most circuit parameters are
temperature sensitive.
P = Pnom(1+ 1T+ 2T2)
where T = T-Tnom
Pnom is defined at Tnom

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Exercise
T he input and output voltages of an
amplifier are expressed as vi = 0.001
sin(2000t) V and vo = 5 cos(2000t
+ 25) V in which vi and vo are
specified in volts when t is seconds.
What are Vi, VO, and the voltage gain
of the amplifier?

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Exercise
T he input and output voltages of an
amplifier are expressed as vi = 0.001
sin(2000t) V and vo = 5 cos(2000t
+ 25) V in which vi and vo are
specified in volts when t is seconds.
What are Vi, VO, and the voltage gain
of the amplifier?
0.001< 0; 5< 65; 5000<65
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Exercise
The amplifier has a gain of 5 with
R1 = 10 kohms. What is the value
of R2?

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Exercise
The amplifier has a gain of 5 with
R1 = 10 kohms. What is the value
of R2?

Answer: 50 Kilo ohms

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Exercise
(a)The band-pass amplifier in has fL = 1.5
kHz, fH = 2.5 kHz, and A = 10. If the input
voltage is given by vs = [0.5 sin(2000t)
+ sin(4000t) + 1.5 sin(6000t)] V. What
is the amplitude of theoutput voltage of
the amplifier?
(b)Suppose the same input signal is applied
to the low-pass amplifier which has A = 6
and fH = 1.5 kHz. What is the amplitude
of the output voltage?
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Exercise
(a)The band-pass amplifier in has fL = 1.5 kHz,
fH = 2.5 kHz, and A = 10. If the input voltage
is given by vs = [0.5 sin(2000t) +
sin(4000t) + 1.5 sin(6000t)] V. What is the
amplitude of theoutput voltage of the
amplifier?
(b)Suppose the same input signal is applied to
the low-pass amplifier which has A = 6 and fH
= 1.5 kHz. What is the amplitude of the
output voltage?
Answers: 10.0; 3.00 V
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Exercise
A 39-k resistor has a 10 percent
tolerance. What is the range of
resistor values corresponding to
this resistor? Repeat for a 3.6-k
resistor with a 1 percent tolerance.

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Exercise
A 39-k resistor has a 10 percent
tolerance. What is the range of
resistor values corresponding to
this resistor? Repeat for a 3.6-k
resistor with a 1 percent tolerance.
Answers: 35.1 R 42.9 k; 3.56 R
3.64 k.
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Exercise
A diffused resistor has a nominal
value of 10 k at a temperature of 25C
and has a TCR of +1000 ppm/C. Find
its resistance at 40 and 75C. For T =
55C and T = +85C?

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Exercise
A diffused resistor has a nominal value of 10
k at a temperature of 25C and has a TCR of
+1000 ppm/C. Find its resistance at 40 and
75C. For T = 55C and T = +85C?
10.15 k
10.5 k
9.20 k
10.6 k
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Solid State Electronics

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The Inventors of the Integrated


Circuit

JackKilby

AndyGrove,RobertNoyce,and
GordonMoorewithIntel8080layout.

The Kilby Integrated Circuit


Activedevice

Semiconductordie

Electricalcontacts

Solid-State Electronic
Materials
Electronic materials fall into three
categories:
Insulators
Resistivity () > 105 -cm
Semiconductors
10-3 < < 105 -cm
Conductors
< 10-3 -cm

Elemental semiconductors are formed from


a single type of atom, typically Silicon.
Compound semiconductors are formed from
combinations of column III and V elements
or columns II and VI.
Germanium was used in many early
devices.
Silicon quickly replaced Germanium due to
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energy, lower cost, and
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is easily oxidized
to form
Dave
A. Anas silicon-dioxide

Semiconductor Materials
Semiconductor

Bandgap
EnergyEG(eV)

Carbon(diamond)

5.47

Silicon

1.12

Germanium

0.66

Tin

0.082

Galliumarsenide

1.42

Galliumnitride

3.49

Indiumphosphide

1.35

Boronnitride

7.50

Siliconcarbide

3.26

Cadmiumselenide

1.70

Covalent Bond Model

Siliconcrystal
latticeunitcell.

Cornerofdiamond
latticeshowing
fournearest
neighborbonding.

Viewofcrystal
latticealonga
crystallographicaxis.

Silicon Covalent Bond Model

Nearabsolutezero,allbondsarecomplete.
EachSiatomcontributesoneelectronto
eachofthefourbondpairs.

Increasingtemperatureaddsenergytothe
systemandbreaksbondsinthelattice,
generatingelectronholepairs.

Intrinsic Carrier
Concentration

The density of carriers in a semiconductor as a


function of temperature and material properties is:

n i2

EG
6
BT exp
cm

kT
3

EG = semiconductor bandgap energy in eV (electron


volts)
k = Boltzmanns constant, 8.62 x 10-5 eV/K
T =
absolute termperature, K
B = material-dependent parameter, 1.08 x 1031 K-3
cm-6 for Si
Bandgap energy is the minimum energy needed to
free an electron by breaking a covalent bond in the
semiconductor crystal.
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Intrinsiccarrierdensity(cm3)

Intrinsic Carrier Concentration


Electron
density is n
(electrons/cm3)
and ni for
intrinsic
material n = ni.
Intrinsic refers
to properties
of pure
materials.
ni 1010 cm-3
for Si
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Electron-hole
concentrations
A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is
broken.
The vacancy is called a hole.
A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by
an electron from a nearby broken bond
(hole current).
Hole density is represented by p.
For intrinsic silicon, n = ni = p.
The product of electron and hole
concentrations is pn = ni2.
The pn product above holds when a
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isTechnology
in thermal equilibrium
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Drift Current
Electrical resistivity and its reciprocal, conductivity
, characterize current flow in a material when an
electric field is applied.
Charged particles move or drift under the influence
of the applied field.
The resulting current is called drift current.
Drift current density is

j = Qv (C/cm3)(cm/s) = A/cm2
j
= current density, (Coulomb charge moving
through a unit area)
Q = charge density, (Charge in a unit volume)
v
= velocity of charge in an electric field.
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Mobility
At low fields, carrier drift velocity v (cm/s) is
proportional to electric field E (V/cm). The
constant of proportionality is the mobility, :

vn = - n E

and

vp = pE,

where
vn and vp = electron and hole velocity (cm/s),
n and p = electron and hole mobility (cm 2/Vs)
Hole mobility is less than electron since hole
current is the result of multiple covalent bond
disruptions, while electrons can move freely about
the crystal.
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Chap2175

Velocity Saturation
At high fields,
carrier velocity
saturates and
places upper
limits on the
speed of solidstate devices.

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Chap2176

Intrinsic Silicon
Resistivity
Given drift current and mobility, we can
calculate resistivity:
jndrift = Qnvn = (-qn)(- nE) = qn nE A/cm2
jpdrift = Qpvp = (qp)( pE) = qp pE

A/cm2

jTdrift = jn + jp = q(n n + p p)E = E


This defines electrical conductivity:
= q(n n + p p)
(cm)-1
Resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity:

E
V /cm

cm

= 1/
(cm)
j
A /cm

drift
T

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Chap2177

Example: Calculate the resistivity of


intrinsic silicon

Problem: Find the resistivity of


intrinsic silicon at room
temperature and classify it as
an insulator, semiconductor, or
conductor.

Example: Calculate the resistivity of


intrinsic silicon

= (1.60 x 10-19)[(1010)(1350) + (1010)(500)] (C)


(cm3)(cm2/Vs)
= 2.96 x 10-6 (cm)-1

= 1/ = 3.38 x 105 cm

Semiconductor Doping
Doping is the process of adding
very small well controlled
amounts of impurities into a
semiconductor.
Doping enables the control of
the resistivity and other
properties over a wide range of
values.
For silicon, impurities are from
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the
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Dave A. Anas

Donor Impurities in Silicon

Phosphorous (or other


column V element) atom
replaces silicon atom in
crystal lattice.
Since phosphorous has
five outer shell electrons,
there is now an extra
electron in the structure.
Material is still charge
neutral, but very little
energy is required to free
the electron for
conduction since it is not
participating in a bond.

Acceptor Impurities in
Silicon

Boron (column III


element) has been added
to silicon.
There is now an
incomplete bond pair,
creating a vacancy for an
electron.
Little energy is required
to move a nearby
electron into the
vacancy.
As the hole propagates,
charge is moved across
the silicon.

Acceptor Impurities in Silicon

Holeispropagatingthroughthesilicon.

Doped Silicon Carrier


Concentrations
If n > p, the material is n-type.
If p > n, the material is p-type.
The carrier with the largest concentration is the
majority carrier, the smaller is the minority
carrier.
ND = donor impurity concentration atoms/cm 3
NA = acceptor impurity concentration atoms/cm 3
Charge neutrality requires q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0
It can also be shown that pn = ni2, even for doped
semiconductors in thermal equilibrium.

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Chap2184

n-type Material
Substituting p = ni2/n into q(ND +
p - NA - n) = 0 yields n2 - (ND NA)n - ni2 = 0.
Solving
(N D for
N A ) n (N D N A ) 2 4n i2
n

n i2
andp
n

For (ND - NA) >> 2ni, n (ND - NA) .


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Chap2185

p-type Material
Similar to the approach used with n-type
material we find the following equations:

(N A N D ) (N A N D ) 2 4n i2
n i2
p
andn
2
p
We find the majority carrier concentration
from charge neutrality and find the minority
carrier conc. from the thermal equilibrium

relationship.
For (NA - ND) >> 2ni, p (NA - ND) .
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Practical Doping Levels


Majority carrier concentrations are
established at manufacturing time and are
independent of temperature (over practical
temp. ranges).
However, minority carrier concentrations
are proportional to ni2, a highly
temperature dependent term.
For practical doping levels, n (ND - NA) for
n-type and p (NA - ND) for p-type material.
Typical doping ranges are 1014/cm3 to
1021/cm3.
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Chap2187

Mobility and Resistivity in


Doped Semiconductors

Diffusion Current
In practical semiconductors, it is quite
useful to create carrier concentration
gradients by varying the dopant
concentration and/or the dopant type across
a region of semiconductor.
This gives rise to a diffusion current
resulting from the natural tendency of
carriers to move from high concentration
regions to low concentration regions.
Diffusion current is analogous to a gas
moving across a room to evenly distribute
itself across the volume.
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Chap2189

Diffusion Current

j pdiff

Carriers move toward


regions of lower
concentration, so
diffusion current
densities are
p
p to the
proportional
( q) D p qD p
A/cm 2
x
negative
xof
the carrier
gradient.
n
n

jndiff ( q) Dn qDn
x
x

A/cm 2

Diffusioncurrentdensityequations
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Diffusioncurrentsinthe
presenceofaconcentration
gradient.

Diffusion Current
The proportionality constants D p and Dn
are the hole and electron diffusivities
with units cm2/s. Diffusivity and mobility
are related by Einsteinss relationship:
Dn kT D p

VT Thermalvoltage
n
q
p
Dn n VT , D p p VT

The thermal voltage, VT = kT/q, is


approximately 25 mV at room

temperature.
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Dave A. Anas

Gauss's law
In physics, Gauss's law, also
known as Gauss's flux theorem,
is a law relating the distribution
of electric charge to the
resulting electric field.
The electric flux through any
closed surface is proportional to
the enclosed electric charge.
Microelectronics And IC

Microelectronic
Circuit Design, 4E
Technology
McGraw-Hill

Dave A. Anas

Chap2192

Maxwell's equations

Gauss's law
Gauss's law for magnetism
Faraday's law of induction
Ampre's law with Maxwell's corr
ection

Microelectronics And IC

Microelectronic
Circuit Design, 4E
Technology
McGraw-Hill

Dave A. Anas

Chap2193

Gauss's law for


magnetism
It states that the magnetic field
B has divergence equal to zero,
in other words, that it is a
solenoidal vector field.
It is equivalent to the statement
that magnetic monopoles do not
exist.
Rather than "magnetic charges",
the basic entity for magnetism is
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Chap2194
the magneticDave
dipole.
A. Anas

Semiconductor Energy Band


Model

Semiconductorenergy
bandmodel.ECandEV
areenergylevelsatthe
edgeoftheconduction
andvalencebands.

Electronparticipatingin
acovalentbondisina
lowerenergystateinthe
valenceband.This
diagramrepresents0K.

Thermalenergybreaks
covalentbondsand
movestheelectronsup
intotheconduction
band.

Energy Band Model for a Doped


Semiconductor

Semiconductorwithdonororntype
dopants.Thedonoratomshavefree
electronswithenergyED.SinceEDis
closetoEC,(about0.045eVfor
phosphorous),itiseasyforelectrons
inanntypematerialtomoveupinto
theconductionband.

Semiconductorwithacceptororp
typedopants.Thedonoratomshave
unfilledcovalentbondswithenergy
stateEA.SinceEAisclosetoEV,
(about0.044eVforboron),itiseasy
forelectronsinthevalencebandto
moveupintotheacceptorsitesand
completecovalentbondpairs.

Energy Band Model for


Compensated Semiconductor

Acompensatedsemiconductorhasbothntype
andptypedopants.IfND>NA,therearemore
NDdonorlevels.Thedonorelectronsfillthe
acceptorsites.TheremainingNDNAelectrons
areavailableforpromotiontotheconduction
band.

Integrated Circuit Fabrication


Overview

Topviewofanintegratedpndiode.

Integrated Circuit
Fabrication

(a)Firstmaskexposure,(b)postexposureanddevelopmentofphotoresist,(c)
afterSiO2etch,and(d)afterimplantation/diffusionofacceptordopant.

Integrated Circuit
Fabrication

(e)Exposureofcontactopeningmask,(f)afterresistdevelopmentandetchingofcontact
openings,(g)exposureofmetalmask,and(h)Afteretchingofaluminumandresistremoval.

Digital and Logic Circuits

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The Number System


Number System

Radix or Base

Decimal

10

Binary

Octal

Hexadecimal

16

Decimal Number System

The Decimal Number


Systems
Unit
Number
Base
(Radix)

ositional Notation

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204

Positional Notation
Positional notation
is a system where the value of a
number is defined not only by the
symbol but by the symbols
position

ositional Notation

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205

Positional Notation
Positional notation

Msd lsd

ABCDE.vwxyz
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206

(MSD and
MSD
LSD)
The MSD in a number is the digit that
has the greatest effect on that number.

LSD
The LSD in a number is the digit that has
the least effect on that number.

conversion

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Number System
Conversion

Base 10 to Base N
Base N to Base 10
Base N to Base M
Special Conversion (Binary,
Hexadecimal, Octal)

ase 10-base n

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208

Base
to
Base
N
Whole10
Part: DIVIDE by radix!!
Fractional Part: MULTIPLY by
radix!!

ase n base 10

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Base
to Base 10
PlaceNValue!

ase n-base m

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Base N to Base
M
Base N

Binary-octal

Base 10
Base M
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211

Binary
to 3Octal
Group by
bits!

Octal-binary

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to Binary
Octal
Represent
each octal digit into 3
bits!

Binary - hex

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213

Binary to
Group by 4 bits!
Hexadecimal

Hex-binary

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214

Hexadecimal to
Binary
Represent each octal digit into 4
bits!

ct-hex & hex-oct

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215

Oct to Hex & Hex to Oct


Octal

Hex

Binary

Binary

Hex

Octal

athematical opr

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216

Mathematical
Operations
Addition
Convert to decimal, ADD, convert back
to its number system.

Subtraction
Use complements.

omplements

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Complemen
ts

Used to in subtraction and also in


representing negative numbers.

1. Radix-minus-One Complement
2. True Complement

Base-1

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Radix-Minus-One
Complement
Diminished Radix Complement
(Base-1) - complement

true

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219

True
Complement

codes

ADD 1 to the Radix-minus-one


complement.

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220

Code
s
Weighted Code
Weight is assigned to each bit
representing a number.
Example: BCD, 8-4-2-1 code

Unweighted Code
Weight is not assigned to each bit
Example: Excess-3, Biquinary

oolean algebra

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221

Boolean
Algebra
By George Boole (1854)
An algebraic structure in which variables
can only have two possible values: 1 or
0
Operators: Complement, OR and AND
Used primarily by Design Engineers.

theorems

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222

Theorems of Boolean
Algebra

laws

A+A=A
A+A=1
A+0=A
A+1=1
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1+1=1

AA=A
AA=0
A0=0
A1=A
00=0
01=0
10=0
11=1
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Dave A. Anas

A=A
0=1
1=0

223

Truth table

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224

Truth Table
Shows all the possible input
combinations and its
corresponding output.
The number of input
combination should be 2b.
Where b is the number of inputs.

xample/+-logic

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Truth Table

oduct/sum term

x y z

000

Output

001

Output

010

Output

011

Output

100

Output

101

Output

110

Output
226

Karnaugh
Map (K-Map)
Graphical-Tabular
method of
simplifying logical expressions.

12 13

15

14

11

10

condiitions

Groups:

Power of two
Symmetrical
Large as possible
Few as possible

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ogic gates

x y z
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

F
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1

F=xyz+xyz+xyz

F=x(y+z)

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228

Logic
Gates
Smallest building block of
digital circuitry.
A circuit that follows Boolean
Logic.

Gate sample

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229

Positive and Negative


Logic

Gate sample

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230

Logic Gates

niversal gates

Inverter (NOT)
OR
AND
NOR
NAND
XOR
XNOR
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231

Universal Gates
NOR
NAND

ogic ckt/xnor x or

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Logic Circuits
Combinational Logic
Output is dependent on present input
only.
Has logic gates only.

Sequential Logic
Output is dependent on present input and
present output.
Has logic gates and memory elements.

ombinational

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Combinational Logic Circuits


Adder
Quarter
Half
Full

sequential

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Combinational Logic Circuits

sequential

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235

Sequential Logic Circuits


Synchronous sequential circuit
Clock-controlled

Asynchronous sequential circuit

Flip-flops

Non-clocked

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236

Flip-Flops

used to store data temporarily


to multiply or divide
to count operations
to receive and transfer
information.
Smallest memory element.
Common types:

registers

RS
T
D
JK

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237

Registers
A register is a temporary storage
device.
They are used to store data, memory
addresses, and operation codes.
Registers are normally referred to by
the number of stages they contain or
by the number of bits they will store.
Used in the transfer of data to and
from input and output devices.

arallel Register

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238

Shift Register
A register in which the contents
may be shifted one or more
places to the left or right.
used for serial-to-parallel
conversion and for scaling
binary numbers

memories

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239

LOGIC FAMILIES

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Logic Family Definition


A circuit configuration or approach
used to produce a type of digital
integrated circuit.
Consequence:
different
logic
functions, when fabricated in the form
of an IC with the same approach, or in
other words belonging to the same
logic family, will have identical
electrical characteristics.
the set of digital ICs belonging to the
same logic family are electrically
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compatible
with each
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241

Common Characteristics
of the Same Logic Family
Supply voltage range, speed of
response, power dissipation, input
and output logic levels, current
sourcing and sinking capability,
fan-out, noise margin, etc.
Consequence: choosing digital ICs
from the same logic family
guarantees that these ICs are
compatible with respect to each
other and that the system as a
whole performs
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242
function. Dave
A. Anas

Types of Logic Family 1


The entire range of digital ICs is
fabricated using either bipolar
devices or MOS devices or a
combination of the two.
Bipolar families:
Diode logic (DL). (obsolete)
Resistor transistor logic (RTL). (obsolete)
Diode transistor logic (DTL). (obsolete)
Transistor Transistor logic (TTL).
Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL), also known
as Current Mode Logic(CML).
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Integrated Injection
Technology logic (I2L). (obsolete)
243
Dave A. Anas

Types of Logic Family 2


MOS families:
PMOS family (using P-channel
MOSFETs)
The NMOS family (using Nchannel MOSFETs)
The CMOS family (using both Nand P-channel devices).
The Bi-MOS logic family uses both
bipolar and MOS devices.
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244

DL Example

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245

RTL Example

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246

DTL Example

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247

TTL Subfamilies

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CMOS Sub families


4000A
4000B, 4000UB,
54/74C, 54/74HC, 54/74HCT,
54/74AC and 54/74ACT(TTL pin
compatible)

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249

Characteristic
Parameters 1

HIGH-level input current, IIH (current flowing


into (taken as positive) or out of (taken as
negative) an input when a HIGH-level input
voltage equal to the minimum HIGH-level output
voltage specified for the family is applied.
LOW-level input current, IIL. is the maximum
current flowing into (taken as positive) or out of
(taken as negative) the input of a logic function
when the voltage applied at the input equals the
maximum LOW-level output voltage specified for
the family.
unit load (UL) HIGH-level and LOW-level input
current or loading typically found in data sheets
(For devices of the TTL family, 1 UL (HIGH)=40 A
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And IC
and 1 UL (LOW)=1.6
mA.
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250

Characteristic
Parameters 2

HIGH-level output current, IOH. This is the

maximum current flowing out of an


output when the input conditions are

such that the output is in the logic


HIGH state. Typically negative
number.
LOW-level output current, IOL. This is the
maximum current flowing into the
output pin of a logic function when
the input conditions are such that
the output is in the logic LOW state.
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251

Characteristic
Parameters 3

HIGH-level off-state (high-impedance state)

This is the current


flowing into an output of a tristate
logic function with the ENABLE
input chosen so as to establish a
high-impedance state and a logic
HIGH voltage level applied at the
output. The input conditions are
chosen so as to produce logic LOW
if the device is enabled.
output current, IOZH.

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252

Input and output current


specifications

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253

Characteristic
Parameters 4

This is the
maximum voltage level applied
at the input that is recognized
as a legal LOW level for the
specified family.
HIGH-level output voltage, VOH. This is
the minimum voltage on the
output pin of a logic function
when the input conditions
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establish
logic HIGH
at the
Technology
A. Anas
output for Dave
the
specified family.

LOW-level input voltage, VIL.

254

Characteristic
Parameters
5

This
is the minimum voltage on
the output pin of a logic
function when the input
conditions establish logic
HIGH at the output for the
specified family.
HIGH-level output voltage, VOH.

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255

Characteristic
Parameters 6
Supply current, ICC.

The supply current


when the output is HIGH, LOW and in
the high-impedance state is
respectively designated as ICCH, ICCL
and ICCZ.
Rise time, tr. This is the time that elapses
between 10 and 90 % of the final signal
level when the signal is making a
transition from logic LOW to logic HIGH.
Fall time, tf . This is the time that elapses
between 90 and 10 % of the signal level
when it is making HIGH to LOW
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transition.
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256

Characteristic
Parameters 7
Propagation delay tp.

is the time delay


between the occurrence of change in the
logical level at the input and before it is
reflected at the output. It is the time delay
between the specified voltage points on
the input and output waveforms.
Propagation delays are separately defined
for LOW-to-HIGH and HIGH-to-LOW
transitions at the output. In addition, we
also define enable and disable time delays
that occur during transition between the
high-impedance state and defined logic
LOW or HIGH states.
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257

Characteristic
Parameters 8

This is the
maximum frequency at which the clock
input of a flip-flop can be driven through
its required sequence while maintaining
stable transitions of logic level at the
output in accordance with the input
conditions and the product specification.
Power dissipation. The power dissipation
parameter for a logic family is specified
in terms of power consumption per gate
and is the product of supply voltage VCC
and supplyMicroelectronics
current ICC.
And IC
Maximum clock frequency, fmax.

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258

Characteristic
Parameters
9

Speedpower product. The speed of a logic circuit can

be increased, that is, the propagation delay can be


reduced, at the expense of power dissipation.
Fan-out. is the number of inputs of a logic function
that can be driven from a single output without
causing any false output.
Noise margin. This is a quantitative measure of noise
immunity offered by the logic family. When the
output of a logic device feeds the input of another
device of the same family, a legal HIGH logic state
at the output of the feeding device should be
treated as a legal HIGH logic state by the input of
the device being fed. Similarly, a legal LOW logic
state of the feeding device should be treated as a
legal LOW logic
state by the device being fed.
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259

Noise MARGIN

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Exercise
A certain TTL gate has the
following values for its logic
levels: VOH = 3.6 V, VOL =0.4 V, VI
H = 2.0 V, VI L = 0.8 V. What are
the noise margins for this TTL
gate?

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Exercise
A certain TTL gate has the
following values for its logic
levels: VOH = 3.6 V, VOL =0.4 V, VI
H = 2.0 V, VI L = 0.8 V. What are
the noise margins for this TTL
gate?
Answers: NMH = 1.6 V; NML = 0.4
V
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Exercise
A certain TTL gate has the following values for its
logic levels: VOH = 3.6 V, VOL =0.4 V, VI H = 2.0 V, VI L
= 0.8 V. What are the noise margins for this TTL gate?
NML The noise margin associated with a low input level is
defined by
NML = VI L VOL
NMH The noise margin associated with a high input level is
defined by
NMH = VOH VI H
Answers: NMH = 1.6 V; NML = 0.4 V
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Exercise
Suppose the waveforms in Fig.
6.5 are those of an ECL gate with
VL = 2.6 V and VH = 0.6 V, and
t1 = 100 ns, t2 = 105 ns, t3 = 150
ns, and t4 = 153 ns. What are the
values of V10%, V90%, V50%, tr ,
and tf ?

Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Exercise
Suppose the waveforms in Fig. 6.5 are
those of an ECL gate with VL = 2.6 V and VH
= 0.6 V, and t1 = 100 ns, t2 = 105 ns, t3 =
150 ns, and t4 = 153 ns. What are the values
of V10%, V90%, V50%, tr , and tf ?

Answers: 2.4 V; 0.8 V; 1.6 V; 3


ns; 5 ns
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas

Exercise
Suppose the waveforms in Fig. 6.5 are those of an ECL
gate with VL = 2.6 V and VH = 0.6 V, and t1 = 100 ns,
t2 = 105 ns, t3 = 150 ns, and t4 = 153 ns. What are the
values of V10%, V90%, V50%, tr , and tf ?

V10% = VL + 0.1V
V90% = VL + 0.9V = VH 0.1V
V = VH VL
V50% = VH + VL
Answers: 2.4 V; 0.8 V; 1.6 V; 3 ns; 5 ns
Microelectronics And IC
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Dave A. Anas