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Combs and Brushes:

Wide-toothed Combs are designed to detangle and smooth

out towel- dried hair
Smaller-toothed Combs are used for smoothing and finishing
short or straight hairstyles.
Vented Brush has multiple rows of tines (widely-set) along a
base with air holes or openings to allow air to circulate
Round or Curved Brushes have rows of tines on a round or
curved base and are designed for use in blow-dry styling to
add soft curve the styles.
Paddle Brushes have rows of tines on a flat base and are
used in blow-dry straightened styles to keep the hair
smooth and flat.
Bristled Brushes can have natural or synthetic bristles and
are used for finishing and smoothing a style, or for
distributing natural hair oils and massaging the scalp to
maintain hair and scalp health.

Blow Dryer: Hand-held hair dryers have become

a staple in hair care. These tools are designed
to use directed streams of heated
air to dry the hair quickly.
Curling Irons/Flat Irons: Similar to hot rollers,
curling irons and flat irons use heat (and in
the case of curling irons, occasionally a
moisture) to change the curl pattern of the hair.

Histology of the hair: the science of the minute structure of the

Hair analysis: the process of recognizing and distinguishing the
various types and qualities of hair.
Hair care: overall term for parts of hygiene and cosmetology
involving the hair on the human head.
Hair styling: the hairstyle, hair do or haircut of the head hair.
Hair cutting: the process of thinning, tapering, and shortening
the hair, using comb, scissors, thinning shears or razor, to mold
the hair into a becoming shape.
Hair tainting and bleaching: the science and art of changing the
color of the hair.
Hair tinting: involves the addition of an artificial color to the
natural pigment in the hair
Hair bleaching: partial or total removal of the natural pigment
from the hair.

Sectioning involves dividing the hair into

manageable and controllable areas. A basic
sectioning pattern would be to part the head
from the centre of the forehead to the
centre of the nape, and across the head from
ear to ear. The sectioning pattern you would
use to section the head further would
depend upon the type of haircut you were

Partings are divisions of

the larger sections of
hair into smaller more
manageable areas that
enable you to work
progressively and
methodically. They are
usually produced with
a comb and generally
run parallel to the
design line.

For a quick trick

to memorize:

The scalp is divided into

seven sections: top,
right side, left side,
right crown, left crown,
right nape and left
nape. In addition a onehalf inch band of hair is
left to hang loose
around the perimeter of
the hair line. Above are
some photos which show
exactly what is

Haircutting Tools
Haircutting shears
Thinning shears
Straight razor or razor shaper
Styling or cutting comb
Barber comb
Wide-tooth comb
Sectioning clips
Jaw clips
Duckbill clips

Give most control and best results.

Avoid muscle strain in hands, arms, neck and

Open dominant hand and place ring finger in

finger grip of still of still blade and little
finger ion finger brace (tang).
Place thumb in finger grip of moving blade
Practice opening and closing.

Palming the shears

(a) Remove thumb from finger grip leaving
ring and little fingers in the grip and
finger rest.
(b) Curl fingers into palm the shears to
keep them closing while you comb or
part hair.
c) While palming shears, hold comb
between thumb, index, and middle
Transferring the comb.
(a) Once fingers are in place at the correct
cutting position, transfer the comb by
placing it between the thumb and index
finger of your holding hand.

Method A
(a) Open razor so that handle is higher than the shank. Place
thumb on thumb grip and the index, middle and ring fingers
on the shank.
(b) Place little finger in the tang, underneath the handle.
(c) When cutting, position razor on top of the subsection (the
part facing you), for maximum control.

The purpose of the treatment is to preserve the

health and beauty of the hair and scalp, to
overcome and combat disorders of the scalp, such
as dandruff and the loss of hair, and to stimulate
the blood stream.
Scalp manipulations increase the circulation of
the blood to the scalp, rest and soothe the
nerves, stimulate the muscles and the activity of
the scalp glands
The treatment of the hair and scalp includes
regular shampoo and scalp massage services as
well as special treatments for hair and scalp

Shampoo service: includes shampoo

procedure, scalp massage, and conditioning.

service for the client.

Provides hygienic/circulatory benefits to the
Prepares the hair for haircutting and other

Shampoo Service includes

Requires proper draping/positioning of client,
scalp manipulations, and proper positioning of
the barber.
Methods of shampooing and rinsing

method: chair is reclined, with clients

head positioned in neck-rest of the shampoo bowl.
Inclined method: client bends his head forward
over the shampoo bowl or sink


Purpose of a shampoo product/service is to

cleanse the scalp and hair. Shampoo products
should be selected according to the condition of
the clients hair and scalp.
Shampoos do not contain harsh alkalis.
Usually leave the hair in a more manageable
Requirements of a good shampoo product
It should cleanse the hair of oils, debris, and dirt.
It should work efficiently in hard, as well as soft,
It should not irritate the eyes or skin.
It should leave the hair and scalp in their natural

Conditioners: Refers to either hair

conditioners or scalp conditioners.
Hair conditioners: moisturize the hair; help
to restore natural oils/proteins; pH of 3.0
to 5.5.

Temporary remedies for dry/damaged hair.

b. Excessive use or wrong type can cause
product buildup; can make hair heavy/oily.

Scalp conditioners: for general

maintenance/to treat conditions requiring
a medicinal product.

Basic types of conditioners: instant, treatment

or repair, and leave-in.

1. Instant: applied following a shampoo;

rinsed after one to five minutes.
a. Low pH.
b. Does not penetrate hair shaft; may add
oils, moisture, and sometimes protein.
c. Examples: finishing, detangling, and
cream rinses.

2. Treatment or repair
a. Moisturizing: uses humectants to draw/lock in
moisture; rinsed after 10 to 20 minutes.
b. Protein: cream or liquid form; partially
replaces lost keratin in cortex to strengthen hair.
c. Deep-conditioning treatment: protein in cream
moisturizer; strengthens/moisturizes.
d. Synthetic polymer: used on badly damaged
hair; may prevent further breakage/correct
excessive porosity.
3. Leave-in: designed for use with thermal tools or
to equalize the porosity of the hair shaft.

Scalp conditioners: available for different

1. Cream-based: moisturizers/emollients
soften and/or improve health of the scalp.
2. Medicated: promote healing of the scalp.
3. Astringent tonics: help remove oil
accumulation on the scalp.

Application of shampoo

Rinse through hair with warm water; dispense product

into hand; disperse over palms to facilitate spreading
throughout clients hair.
Spread sections of the hair apart with the
thumbs/fingers; apply shampoo directly onto scalp.
Massage shampoo into the scalp and hair; add warm
water gradually to work up lather.
Avoid getting shampoo lather on clients face.
Perform scalp manipulations with the cushion tips of
the fingers.
Repeat manipulations several times.

Remove excess lather and rinse thoroughly with a

strong spray.
Shampoo massage manipulations.
Stand behind or to the side of the client at the shampoo
bowl, as the style of sink allows.
Wet the hair, protecting the clients face, ears, and
Lather the hair, starting at the front hairline and
working along the sides toward the back and nape
Use rotary movements over the entire head area.
Repeat these movements for each section several

Scalp Treatments

The purpose of scalp treatment is to

preserve the health and appearance of the
hair and scalp.
Treatments help prevent/combat scalp
disorders (dandruff, dryness, oiliness, or
hair loss).
Cleanliness and stimulation are essential
requirements for healthy hair/scalp.
A healthy scalp will help to maintain a
healthy head of hair.

Treatments may be given

separately/combined with hair treatments,
depending on clients need.
1. Cleansing with a suitable shampoo.
2. Massaging with the hands or electrical
3. Use of electrical appliances (electric
steamer, infrared lamp, ultraviolet lamp,
high-frequency current, or dermal, lamp).

4. Application of preparations (hair tonics,

astringents, antiseptics, or ointments).
5. Caution: Do not suggest a scalp treatment
if abrasions or lesions are present; advice
clients with serious or contagious scalp
disorders to consult a physician, barbers
should not treat scalp diseases caused by
parasitic or staphylococcus infections, clients
with abnormal scalp conditions should be
referred to a physician and never use a scalpor hair-treatment product that contains
alcohol before applying high frequency
current. Such products can only be safely
applied after the high-frequency treatment.

Relaxing movement
Sliding movement
Sliding and rotating
Forehead movement
Moving the scalp
Hairline movement

Front scalp
Back scalp
Ear to ear
Spine movement
Shoulder movement
Back movement

Brush the hair

Apply scalp pomade/cream
Give regular scalp manipulations
Apply infra red lamp for five minutes
Shampoo the hair
Dry the hair
Finish by dressing the hair as desired

Importance of Acidity or Alkalinity of Products

Important to the Barber

The pH level influences how that product will

affect layers of the hair and skin

Hot Oil Treatment

Local hot oil treatment or home made scalp
treatment preparation.
Kakang-gata. This is first extract from the grated
Coconut oil. The oil can be obtained by cooking
the kakang-gata.
Sabi-gata. This treatment is a mixture of the sap
of the sabila plant or aloe vera and
coconut extract.

Commercial hot oil treatment

The following are the tools, cosmetics
supplies and materials in giving hot oil

is greasy liquid used as lubricant.

Cape is used to protect the patrons clothes.
Comb is used to separate the hair and
remove tangles.
Hairbrush is used to loosen dandruff and
remove dirt.


enamel is used for healing the oil.

Plastic cap is used to cover the head after
applying hot oil in order to produce heat
during scalp treatment.
Towel is a material used for drying the hair.
Cotton swab is used to apply heated oil on
the hair and scalp.
Bigger bowl is used to contain hot water to
bear the coconut oil.
Heating cap is an electrical device worn on
the head to provide heat for proper
distribution of oil during scalp treatment.

Procedure in Administering Hot Oil

Prepare the needed tools, cosmetics, and
Drape the patron.
Analyze the patrons hair and scalp.
Comb and brush the hair free it from
tangles and remove dirt and loose

Section the hair into four or five portions;

Part the hair at the center from the
facial hairline to crown for at least 3.
Comb the hair downward to the back of
the right ear.
Do the same step to the back of the left
Hold the hair with the do-all clip.
Part the back area into two and secure
the hair with the do-all clip.

Apply heated oil, section by section, from

the scalp to the hair ends.
Give scalp manipulations.
Apply the heating cap for 10 to 15
Shampoo the hair.
Rinse the hair thoroughly.
Towel dry the hair.
Dress the hair.


comfort and protection must

always be considered during
barbering services.
Drapes: protective covering used in
barbering services to protect
clients clothing and skin.

Waterproof: also known as shampoo

capes; made of plastic/waterproof
materials; protects clients
skin/clothing from water/other liquids
during shampooing/chemical processes.
Haircutting: also known as chair cloths;
made of nylon, cotton, or synthetic
materials; does not hold as much heat
as plastic capes, more comfortable for
client; sheds wet/dry hair better than
plastic drapes.

Draping for a shampoo service

Draping for a haircut/facial hair design

Hair Setting: is an art of creating curls or


Implements and Materials in Hair Setting

Pin curl clip is used to keep the curl in place.

Tail comb is used in separating hair strands
and removing tangles.
Setting lotion is a cosmetic used in setting the
hair, making it easy to manage and responsive
to setting techniques.
Rollers are cylindrical objects on which hair is
wound to produce curls or waves.
Gels are semisolids used in most styling.

Roller clips are used the rollers in place.

Triangular hairnet is used over the head
after hair setting to keep the rollers in
place while drying.
Hair blower is an apparatus used for drying
the hair.
Hair sprayers are containers for spraynet.
End papers are porous papers used for
easier hair winding especially when hair is
of various length.
Ear pads protect the ears while drying the