32 views

Uploaded by SyafRizal

oil and gas

- Design and Performance of PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller with Smaller Rule Set for Higher Order System
- UCP- Process Control Manual-1
- PID Calculation
- APC
- Presentation
- Design of a PID Altitude Controller for a Micro Helicopter
- Design of ANFIS Based Estimation and Control for MIMO Systems
- Schx4005 Process Dynamics & Control Lab
- EE4CL4_lecture33
- Jet - Volume 4 - Issue 1 - Februar 2011 - Za Internet
- Eee IV Control Systems [10es43] Notes
- Zomorrodi Shahrokhi PID Tunning Comparison
- Answer Sheet Es2a9 Control H 2018
- 10 Chapter 5
- Controller Design
- xapp1163
- INd.automation AssG2
- B_lecture16 Bode Compensation and PID Controller Automatic control System
- PID
- Chapter2 Literature Review

You are on page 1of 56

PID Control

PID Controls

Most common controller in the CPI.

Came into use in 1930s with the

introduction of pneumatic controllers.

Extremely flexible and powerful control

algorithm when applied properly.

D(s)

G d (s)

sp

(s)

+-

E(s)

G c (s)

Y s (s)

C(s)

G a (s)

G s (s)

U(s)

G p (s)

+

+

Y(s)

From the general feedback control loop and using

the properties of transfer functions, the following

expressions can be derived:

G p ( s ) Ga ( s ) Gc ( s )

Y ( s)

Ysp ( s ) G p ( s ) Ga ( s ) Gc ( s ) Gs ( s ) 1

Gd ( s )

Y (s)

D ( s ) G p ( s ) Ga ( s ) Gc ( s ) Gs ( s ) 1

Characteristic Equation

Since setpoint tracking and disturbance rejection

have the same denominator for their closed loop

transfer functions, this indicates that both setpoint

tracking and disturbance rejection have the same

general dynamic behavior.

The roots of the denominator determine the dynamic

characteristics of the closed loop process.

The characteristic equation is given by:

G p ( s ) Ga ( s ) Gc ( s ) Gs ( s ) 1 0

Consider the dynamic behavior of a P-only controller

applied to a CST thermal mixer (Kp=1; p=60 sec)

where the temperature sensor has a s=20 sec and a is

assumed small. Note that Gc(s)=Kc.

1

1

Kc

1 0

60 s 1 20 s 1

After rearranging into the standard form,

1200

p

1 Kc

1.15

1 Kc

the Closed Loop Poles

When Kc =0, poles are -0.05 and -0.0167 which

correspond to the inverse of p and s.

As Kc is increased from zero, the values of the poles

begin to approach one another.

Critically damped behavior occurs when the poles

are equal.

Underdamped behavior results when Kc is increased

further due to the imaginary components in the poles.

Algorithm

1

c(t ) c0 K c e(t )

I

d e(t )

e(t )dt D

dt

Reverse acting

1

c(t ) c0 K c e(t )

I

d e(t )

e(t )dt D

dt

Direct acting

Definition of Terms

e(t)- the error from setpoint [e(t)=ysp-ys].

Kc- the controller gain is a tuning parameter and

largely determines the controller aggressiveness.

I- the reset time is a tuning parameter and

determines the amount of integral action.

D- the derivative time is a tuning parameter and

determines the amount of derivative action.

in

LT

LC

L

F

out

because when flow in is

increased, the level

increases.

If the final control element

is direct acting, use reverse

acting PID.

For reverse acting final

control element, use direct

acting PID.

F

in

LT

LC

L

F

out

because when flow out

is increased, the level

decreases.

If the final control

element is direct acting,

use direct acting PID.

For reverse acting final

control element, use

reverse acting PID.

and Reverse Acting PIDs

Consider a direct acting final control element

to be positive and reverse to be negative.

If the sign of the product of the final control

element and the process gain is positive, use

the reverse acting PID algorithm.

If the sign of the product is negative, use the

direct acting PID algorithm.

Proportional Band

100%

PB

Kc

Another way to express the controller gain.

Kc in this formula is dimensionless. That is, the

controller output is scaled 0-100% and the error

from setpoint is scaled 0-100%.

In more frequent use 10-15 years ago, but it still

appears as an option on DCSs.

Conversion from PB to Kc

Proportional band is equal to 200%.

The range of the error from setpoint is 200 psi.

The controller output range is 0 to 100%.

100% 100%

K

0.5

PB

200%

100%

K c 0 .5

0.25 % / psi

200 psi

D

c

Controller

e(t ) dt

e(i t ) t

i 1

dt

t

The trapezoidal

approximation of the

integral.

Backward difference

approximation of the

first derivative

Algorithm

t n

e(t ) e(t t )

c(t ) c0 K c e(t ) e(i t ) D

I i 1

t

t

n

t

of the PID Control Algorithm

c (t ) c0 K c e(t )

I

e(i t )

i 1

e(t ) e(t t )

t n 1

e(t t ) e(t 2t )

c(t t ) c0 K c e(t t ) e(i t ) D

t

I i 1

________________________________________________________

t e(t )

e(t ) 2e(t t ) e(t 2t )

c(t ) K c e(t ) e(t t )

D

I

t

t e(t )

e(t ) 2e(t t ) e(t 2t )

c(t ) K c e(t ) e(t t )

D

I

t

c(t ) c(t t ) c(t )

Direct Acting Controller

derivative terms from the position form.

Velocity form is the form implemented on DCSs.

Derivative kick occurs when a setpoint change is

applied that causes a spike in the derivative of the

error from setpoint.

Derivative kick can be eliminated by replacing the

approximation of the derivative based on the error

from setpoint with the negative of the approximation

of the derivative based on the measured value of the

controlled variable, i.e.,

y s (t ) 2 y s (t t ) y s (t 2 t )

D

t

Setpoint Tracking

For certain process, tuning the controller for good

disturbance rejection performance results in

excessively aggressive action for setpoint changes.

This problem can be corrected by removing the

setpoint from the proportional term. Then setpoint

tracking is accomplished by integral action only.

K c e(t ) e(t t ) substituted for by K c y s (t t ) y s (t )

Algorithm Offered on DCSs

(1) The original form in which the

proportional, integral, and derivative terms

are based on the error from setpoint

t e(t )

e(t ) 2e(t t ) e(t 2t )

c(t ) K c e(t ) e(t t )

D

I

t

Algorithm Offered on DCSs

(2) The form in which the proportional and

integral terms are based on the error from

setpoint while the derivative-on-measurement

is used for the derivative term.

t e(t )

y s (t ) 2 y s (t t ) y s (t 2t )

c(t ) K c e(t ) e(t t )

D

I

t

Algorithm Offered on DCSs

(3) The form in which the proportional and

derivative terms are based on the process

measurement and the integral is based on the

error from setpoint.

t e(t )

y (t ) 2 y s (t t ) y s (t 2t )

c(t ) K c y s (t t ) y s (t )

D s

I

t

Controller

C ( s)

1

Gc ( s )

Kc 1

D s

E ( s)

Is

Process with a PI Controller

Kc 2

I 10

Kp 1

Characteristic Equation :

1

2

5s 1 2 10 s 1 0

Rearranging

25s 15s 1 0

p 5

1.5

2

p 5

to a Second Order Process

K c 1; I 1; K p 1; p 5; 2

Characteristic Equation :

1

25s 2 20 s 1

Rearranging

1

1 s 1 0

25s 20s 2s 1 0

p1 0.764 and a second order

3

Measurement

y f (t ) f ys (t ) (1 f ) y f (t t )

Filtering reduces the effect of sensor noise by

approximating a running average.

Filtering adds lag when the filtered measurement is used

for control.

Normally, use the minimum amount of filtering

necessary.

f- filter factor (0-1)

Filtering

D(s)

G d (s)

sp

(s)

+-

E(s)

Y f (s)

G c (s)

G f (s)

C(s)

G a (s)

Y s (s)

U(s)

G p (s)

G s (s)

++

Y(s)

Loop Dynamics

Characteristic equation for P only controller

on first order process with sensor filtering :

Kp

Kc

p s 1

1

1 0

f s 1

p f

Kc K p 1

p f

2 p f ( K c K p 1)

Analysis of Example

f is equal to t (1/f-1) as f becomes small, f

becomes large.

When f is small compared to p, as f is

increased, will decrease.

When f is large compared to p, as f is

increased, will increase.

Critical issue is relative magnitude of f

compare to p.

Filtered Temperature

on the Open Loop Response

f=0.3

f=0.2

20

f=0.1

40

60

Time (seconds)

80

100

Controlled Variable without Filtering

Product Temperature

Manipulated Variable

Time

Controlled Variable with Filtering

Product Temperature

Manipulated Variable

Time

Temperature (C)

Too Little Filtering

104

f=0.01

102

f=0.2

f=0.5

100

0

50

100

150

Time (seconds)

200

c(t ) c0 K c e(t )

Kc K p

Kc K p 1

Y (s)

p

Ysp ( s )

s 1

Kc K p 1

base on a P-only controller

applied to a first order process.

Properties of P control

Does not change order of process

Closed loop time constant is

smaller than open loop p

Does not eliminate offset.

Control

Offset

Setpoint

1.0

3

2

0

1

Time

Response of a PI Controller

ysp

ys

cprop

Time

Kc

c(t ) c0

I

e(t ) dt

1

I p 2

Ysp ( s )

order process

s I s 1

Kc K p

Kc K p

Properties of I control

I

I p

Kc K p

1

I

2 p Kc K p

Offset is eliminated

Increases the order by 1

As integral action is

increased, the process

becomes faster, but at the

expense of more sustained

oscillations

of a PI Controller

ysp

ys

cint

Time

de(t )

c(t ) c0 K c D

dt

K c K p D s

Y (s)

2 2

Ysp ( s ) p s 2 p K c K p D s 1

control applied to a second order process.

Properties of derivative control:

Does not change the order of the process

Does not eliminate offset

Reduces the oscillatory nature of the

feedback response

Response of a PID Controller

ysp

ys

cder

Time

Over 90% of control loops use PI controller.

P-only: used for fast responding processes

that do not require offset free operation (e.g.,

certain level and pressure controllers)

PI: used for fast responding processes that

require offset free operation (e.g., certain

flow, level, pressure, temperature, and

composition controllers)

PID: use for sluggish processes (i.e., a process with large

deadtime to time constant ratios) or processes that exhibit

severe ringing for PI controllers. PID controllers are applied

to certain temperature and composition control loops. Use

derivative action when:

p

1

p

for a Low p/p Ratio

PI

PID

Time

for a High p/p Ratio

PI

PID

Time

Encountered Control Loops

Level control loops

Pressure control loops

Temperature control loops

Composition control loops

FC

Flow

Setpoint

FT

the dynamics of the flow control loop is controlled

by the dynamics of the control valve.

Almost always use PI controller.

Stem Position

Air Pressure

Time

As a result, small changes in the air pressure

applied to the valve do not change the flow rate.

Flow Rate

20

40

Time (seconds)

60

control loop or with a positioner typically has a

deadband for the average flow rate of less than

0.5% due to the high frequency opening and closing

of the valve around the specified flow rate.

F

L

in

sp

F

LC

LT

FT

RSP

FC

out

and actuator are fast

compared to the process.

If operators want control

to setpoint, use PI

controller with small

amount of integral

action, otherwise use Ponly controller.

P

sp

PC

Vent

PT

C.W.

than the actuator.

Use P-only controller unless offset elimination is

important then use a PI controller.

TT

TC

sp

RSP

Process

Stream

FC

FT

Gas

process and sensor are

usually slower than

the actuator.

Use a PI controller

unless the process is

sufficiently sluggish to

warrant a PID

controller.

to Typical Temperature Loop

I 30;

p 60;

v 20

1 Kp

1

Kc 1

1 0

30s 60s 1 20 s 1

K c Kp

p1

p

0.02

0.10

0.057

0.056

325

140

1.48

0.74

0.80

1.50

0.051

0.057

48

28

0.37

0.14

Typical Temperature Control Loop

Note that as the controller gain is increased,

i.e., KcKp increase, the closed loop time

constant becomes smaller.

Also, note that as the controller gain is

increased, the value of decreases.

C.W.

FT

AT

FC

RSP

AC

the slowest element

followed by the sensor

with the actuator being

the fastest.

Use a PI controller

unless the process is

sufficiently sluggish to

warrant a PID controller.

Overview

The characteristic equation determines the dynamic behavior

of a closed loop system

There are a number of different ways to apply a PID controller.

Proportional, integral, and derivative action each have unique

characteristics.

Use a PI controller unless offset is not important or if the

process is sluggish.

When analyzing the dynamics of a loop, consider the dynamics

of the actuator, the process, and the sensor separately.

- Design and Performance of PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller with Smaller Rule Set for Higher Order SystemUploaded bynaderjsa
- UCP- Process Control Manual-1Uploaded byTani Ricafrente
- PID CalculationUploaded byCandiano Popescu
- APCUploaded byTawanda Precious Singizi
- PresentationUploaded byHakan Aykulu
- Design of a PID Altitude Controller for a Micro HelicopterUploaded bycocodave
- Design of ANFIS Based Estimation and Control for MIMO SystemsUploaded byEmre Sezişli
- Schx4005 Process Dynamics & Control LabUploaded bysaibapole
- EE4CL4_lecture33Uploaded byMorteza Sepehran
- Jet - Volume 4 - Issue 1 - Februar 2011 - Za InternetUploaded byVedran Prgomet
- Eee IV Control Systems [10es43] NotesUploaded byKarthikeyan
- Zomorrodi Shahrokhi PID Tunning ComparisonUploaded byX10Sanyi
- Answer Sheet Es2a9 Control H 2018Uploaded byPaul Tanu
- 10 Chapter 5Uploaded bybitsenthil
- Controller DesignUploaded bySertug Başar
- xapp1163Uploaded byHorrlod
- INd.automation AssG2Uploaded byshachihata
- B_lecture16 Bode Compensation and PID Controller Automatic control SystemUploaded byAbaziz Mousa OutlawZz
- PIDUploaded bySatheesh Muthamil
- Chapter2 Literature ReviewUploaded byGolak Mahanta
- Auto Loop PresentationUploaded byRahul Jawda
- Protuner Application ManualUploaded byahmedmagd63
- Control Loop Case 1Uploaded bytatasrba
- Engineering journal ; A Professional PID Implemented using a Non-singleton Type-1 Fuzzy Logic System to Control a Stepper MotorUploaded byEngineering Journal
- control.pdfUploaded byAngel of war
- CUploaded byJadav Jayanti
- Pract 1Uploaded bySajjad Idrees
- Chapter 1Uploaded byfaja2004
- 2-Design and Simulation of Fuzzy Control System for Water TemperatureUploaded byMadhuSudan
- Revised Paper KIChEUploaded byShamsMohd

- Pid NotesUploaded byNguyen Thien Tung
- Jadwal Kesanggupan LiftUploaded bySyafRizal
- Classic UniDriver Release NoteUploaded byfrederico.fer2489
- Gas FluidUploaded byLcm Tnl
- ABB-Electrical Installation Handbook 6th Edition 2010Uploaded bySimon Condor
- Housing Inspection ChecklistUploaded byTC Nihal Alcansoy
- Ex Wall ChartUploaded bynvinodn06
- Cable Glanding and Junction Box.pdfUploaded bySyafRizal
- Flow AssuranceUploaded by14071988
- Building Services ElectricalUploaded bySyafRizal
- Faradays LawUploaded bySyafRizal
- Thickness CalculationUploaded bySyafRizal
- Shahih MuslimUploaded byJawa Bagan
- Ins. Flow OTI.pptUploaded bySyafRizal
- P&ID HandoutUploaded bymetasoniko2014
- FLOWMETER.pdfUploaded bySyafRizal
- Fluke Calibration Temperature Measurement CalibrationUploaded bySyafRizal
- HVAC FormulasUploaded byAshok Kumar S
- Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering for Oil and Gas FacilitiesUploaded bySyafRizal
- 72-10InspectTestform.docUploaded bySyafRizal
- Documents.mx Power Cable Schedule FormatUploaded bySyafRizal
- Electrical design Dev.pptUploaded bySyafRizal
- 80-Budiyono,_Revitalisasi_Cooling_Tower_rev-yax(837-846).pdfUploaded bySyafRizal
- PID Controller Tuning_01Uploaded bySyafRizal
- FLOW MeasurementUploaded bythevend
- 37200922639naveed Anjum - Qa Qc Inspector e&iUploaded bypoochipandy

- What is Communication TechnologyUploaded bygeetkumar18
- By Language 141027 ExcelUploaded byrivas
- Forensic ConceptUploaded bypratipalmadan
- SFg-MPPTCCUploaded byAtiqah Farhana Khazin
- Eng Mena Kamel Resume (Sr. Electrical. Engineer.)Uploaded byMenaKamel
- Cummins Fault CodeUploaded bytrs100
- mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmUploaded byPiyush Sharoff
- sophia gatt resume portfolioUploaded byapi-349678575
- Thiet ke soUploaded bybkset
- LTE KPI.pptUploaded bykhalis@hotmail.com
- COM 214 Theory Book - File Organization & ManagementUploaded byIke Mag-away Gaamil
- Electric CarsUploaded byJaisawal Pravin
- Jadwal PQMUploaded byMUHAMMAD FAUZI
- Reglas ParlamentariasUploaded byML
- 4.2GHDGUploaded byMurugan
- Lg 21sa1rl Rg Rlx-l4 Chassis Cw81bUploaded byBastian Brito
- Product@N8L49PA 0246Uploaded bySagarPatel
- DVR2700AS S ManualUploaded byAlexandre Rodrigues
- GOS-6112-OMUploaded bygbuza1230
- IC CFD AnalysisUploaded bypuyang48
- DtsUploaded byCh Mohan
- AA9604v3manual-2.13-en1Uploaded byfantasy247
- Principles of Information SecurityUploaded byDinesh R Rdx
- SAP Enterprise Portal & SAP Fiori Common Architecture RecommendUploaded byrock_mdc
- PTMUploaded byYatheesh Kaggere
- SemiWiki.com - Introduction to FinFET Technology Part IUploaded byavi0341
- Atari BASIC XL EditionUploaded byRicardo Urbina
- descripcion MaximUploaded byJuanMillerYanquiVela
- Domo HD62-66WDR Installman v2.0Uploaded byMilton Moss
- KC Bike MapUploaded bybillkalicious