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TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTS

Wilting occurs in non-woody plants

when the rate of water loss is faster


than the rate of absorption of water by
the roots.
Cells in the plants lose their turgidity

(stiffness) and the plant droops.

Transpiration is a process by which

water is lost in the form of water


vapour from the surface of a plant
into the air by evaporation.

STOMATA
1. Stomata are pores in the epidermis of

the leaves and stems.


2. A pair of bean-shaped guard cells

bound each stoma.


3. Most stomata open during the day and

close at night.

Monocotyledons
Stomata occur only in the lower epidermis of the
leaf

Dicotyledons
Stomata are found on both sides of the leaf

4. Water vapour is lost through the stomata. Gases

such as oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in


and out of the leaf through the stomata during
photosynthesis and respiration.

5. However, the stomata will close when

transpiration exceeds water absorption.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE


OF TRANSPIRATION
1. A simple way to estimate the

transpiration rate of plant is


to measure its loss in weight
using a weight potometer.
2. It can be used to compare

the transpiration rates of the


same plant under different
conditions.

3. The rate of transpiration is affected by


these factors :
NUMBER OF STOMATA
LIGHT
TEMPERATURE
HUMIDITY
WIND

Number of stomata
A greater number of stomata

increases the rate of


transpiration.

Light
Light stimulates the opening

of stomata.
The high intensity of light

increases the rate of

Temperature
Water molecules move faster in

warm air.
The warm temperature

increases the rate of


transpiration.

Humidity
High humidity reduces water

loss and decreases the rate


of transpiration.

Wind
An increase in wind speed

increases the rate of


transpiration.
It is because the movement

of air carries away the water


vapour from the stomata.

THE ROLES OF TRANSPIRATION


Transport water and minerals in the plant.

To cool the plants.


To get rid excess water from the plants

VASCULAR TISSUES OF A PLANT


1. The transport system in flowering plants

consist of two conducting tissues, the


xylem and the phloem.

a. xylem transports water and mineral


salts from the roots to the leaves for
photosynthesis and to replace water
lost during transpiration
b. phloem transports food produced in
the leaves by photosynthesis to other
parts of the plant.

The arrangement of vascular


bundle in monocotyledon plants

The arrangement of vascular


bundle in dicotyledon plants

SISTEM PENGANGKUTAN DI
DALAM TUMBUHAN

Tumbuhan tidak

berkayu menjadi
layu disebabkan
oleh kadar
kehilangan air
berlaku lebih
cepat berbanding
kadar penyerapan
air oleh akar.

Transpirasi ialah proses di mana air

tersejat daripada permukaan daun ke


udara di dalam bentuk wap air.

STOMATA
1. Stomata ialah liang yang terdapat di

permukaan epidermis daun dan batang.


2. Setiap stoma terdiri daropada sepasang

sel pengawal.
3. Kebanyakan stoma terbuka pada waktu

siang dan tutup pada waktu malam.

4. Fungsi stomata ialah :


a) Membenarkan air keluar semasa transpirasi
b) Membenarkan gas oksigen dan karbon dioksida

keluar dan masuk semasa proses respirasi dan


fotosintesis

5. Walaubagaimanapun, stomata akan tertutup apabila

kadar transpirasi (penyejatan air) lebih tinggi dari


penyerapan air.

FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI


KADAR TRANSPIRASI
1.

Kaedah potometer boleh


digunakan untuk mengukur
kadar transpirasi pokok
dengan melihat kadar
kehilangan beratnya.

2.

Ia boleh digunakan pada pokok


yang sama tetapi dalam
keadaan yang berbeza.

3. Kadar transpirasi dipengaruhi oleh


faktor-faktor berikut :
Bilangan stomata
Cahaya
Suhu
Angin/ kelajuan udara
Kelembapan

Bilangan stomata
Semakin tinggi bilangan stomata,

semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi.

Cahaya
Cahaya meransang

pembukaan
stomata.
Keamatan cahaya

yang tinggi
menyebabkan
kadar transpirasi

Suhu
Molekul air
bergerak pantas di
dalam udara yang
panas.
Suhu yang tinggi

menyebabkan
kadar transpirasi

Kelembapan
Kelembapan yang tinggi (udara

lembab) menyebabkan kadar


transpirasi berkurangan.
Angin / Kelajuan udara
Angin yang bergerak laju

menyebabkan kadar transpirasi


tinggi.
Ini kerana angin membantu

membawa molekul air dari stomata.

PERANAN TRANSPIRASI
Mengangkut air dan garam mineral di dalam

tumbuhan.

Menyingkirkan air berlebihan dari tumbuhan.


Menyejukkan tumbuhan.

TISU VASKULAR DI DALAM TUMBUHAN


1. Tisu pengankut di dalam tumbuhan

terdiri daripada floem dan xilem.


a. xilem membawa air dan garam
mineral
b. floem membawa makanan
(glukosa/gula).

The arrangement of vascular


bundle in monocotyledon plants

The arrangement of vascular


bundle in dicotyledon plants