Presented by ; Benget, S, Sinaga (101 06 11 001) M. Harsono (101 06 11 017)

Definition • Is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a long work-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of opposed rotating rolls. Roll forming, is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through consecutive sets of rolls, or stands, each performing only an incremental part of the bend, until the desired crosssection profile is obtained. Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in large quantities.

• In 1779 a rolling was created in Fontley, Hampshire where Henry Cort developed ideas for rolling processes. • In 1783 Cort received a patent for his groove rolling process.

• The process of roll forming is one of the simpler manufacturing processes. • It begins with a large spool of metal strips, usually between 1 in. and 20in. in width, and 0.004 in. and 0.125 in. thick.

• Rolling produces many products; including flat sheet, I – beams, round bars, and tubular products. Steel & Aluminum are the most commonly rolled materials. • Classification based on Temperature: Hot rolling & cold rolling. • Classification based on Shape: Flat rolling & Shape rolling.

Clasification of Rolling Process

• Rolling is first carried out at elevated temperatures (hot rolling), where the coarse-grained, brittle, and porous structure of the ingot or continuously cast metal is broken down into a wrought structure, with finer grain size.

• Cold rolling is the process of rolling at low temperatures. It is usual applied as finishing process after hot rolling to enhance strength and hardness, and ensure high surface quality. During cold rolling, annealing may take place to facilitate further cold rolling.

The most basic operation in rolling is flat rolling, that produces flat plates and sheets, which are used in applications such as ship hulls, and nuclear vessels, as well as food containers and Aluminum foil. In flat rolling the final shape of the product is either classed as sheet (typically thickness less than 3 mm, also called "strip") or plate (typically thickness more than 3 mm).

Shape rolling is one of the most complex deformation processes in comparison with that of the plates, the sheets, and the bars because the workpiece is nonuniformly reduced by grooved rolls. In the case of a product that has an irregular cross-section, the rolled product is severely bent because of the non-uniform deformation of the material in the cross-section. Various shapes can be produced by shape rolling – Bars – Channels – I-beams – Railroad rails • In general, it requires shaped rolls and expensive equipment, low to moderate labor cost and moderate operator skill.

A thick ring is expanded into a large diameter ring – The ring is placed between the two rolls – One of which is driven – The thickness is reduced by bringing the rolls together • The ring shaped blank my be produced by: – Cutting from plate – Piercing – Cutting from a thick walled pipe Various shapes can be produced by shaped rolls • Typical applications of ring rolling: – Large rings for rockets – Gearwheel rims – Ball-bearing and roller-bearing races • Can be carried out at room temperature • Has short production time • Close dimensional tolerances

(a) Schematic illustration of Ring-rolling operation. Thickness reduction results in an increase in the part diameter. (b) Examples of crosssections that can be formed by

Undesirable – Degrade surface appearance – Adversely affect the strength • Sheet metal defects include: – Scale, Rust, Scratches, Gouges, Pits, & Cracks – May be caused by impurities and inclusions • Wavy edges – result of roll bending • Alligatoring – complex phenomenon

Defects in Rolled Plates & Sheets


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