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You are on page 1of 16

Contents

Manipulating surds

Simplifying surds

Adding and subtracting surds

Expanding brackets containing surds

Rationalizing the denominator

The index laws

Zero and negative indices

Fractional indices

1 of 38

2, 3

3 or

5,

When the square root of a number, for example 2,

or 5,is

irrational, it is often preferable to write it with the root sign.

Numbers written in this form are called surds.

Can you explain why 1.69

1.69 is not a surd?

1.69 is not a surd because it is not irrational.

1.69

169

1.69 =

100

169

=

100

13

=

10

= 1.3

a

a

=

b

b

following two rules:

ab = a b

and

a

a

=

b

b

Also:

a a =a

positive square root of a.

form a b .

We can do this using the fact that

For example:

ab = a b .

Start by finding the largest square number that divides into 50.

This is 25. We can use this to write:

50 = 25 2

= 25 2

=5 2

square root sign is the same. For example:

Simplify 45 + 80.

Start by writing 45 and 80 in their simplest forms.

45 = 95

80 = 165

= 9 5

= 16 5

=3 5

=4 5

45 + 80 = 3 5 + 4 5 = 7 5

usually rewrite it so that the denominator is a rational number.

This is called rationalizing the denominator. For example:

5

Simplify the fraction

.

2

In this example we rationalize the denominator by multiplying

the numerator and the denominator by 2.

2

5

5 2

=

2

2

2

rationalizing their denominators.

2

1)

3

2)

3

2

2 3

=

3

3

3

2

5

3

3)

4 7

5

2

=

5

5

10

5

3

3 7

=

28

4 7

7

numerator and the denominator. For example:

2 3 1

.

Simplify

3 +1

2 3 1 (2 3 1)( 3 1)

=

3 +1

( 3 +1)( 3 1)

73 3

=

3 1

73 3

=

2

Working:

3 1

3 1

= 6 2 3 3 + 1

=7 3 3

a to the power of 5

Simplify:

a a a a a = a5

a5 has been written using index notation.

The number a is

called the base.

an

the index, power or

exponent.

In general:

n of these

an = a a a a

same base the indices are added.

For example:

a4 a2 = (a a a a) (a a)

=aaaaaa

= a6 = a (4 + 2)

In general:

am an = a(m + n)

same base the indices are subtracted.

For example:

aaaaa

a a =

aa

5

= a3 = a (5 2)

4pppppp

4p 2p =

= 2p2 = 2p(6 4)

2pppp

6

In general:

am an = a(m n)

raised to another power, the powers are multiplied.

For example:

(y3)2 = y3 y3

= (y y y) (y y y)

= p4 q (2 + 2 + 2 + 2)

= y6 = y32

= p4 q8

= p4q8 = p14q24

In general:

(am)n = amn

by itself is equal to 1.

y4 y4 = 1

y4 y4 = y(4 4) = y0

That means that

y0 = 1

In general:

a0 = 1

(for all a 0)

1) u =

1

1

u

This is the

reciprocal of u.

2) 2n =

2

n4

3) x2y3 =

x2

y3

5a

4) 5a(3 b) =

(3 b )2

2

1

2

Using the multiplication rule:

1

2

1

2

a a =a

1+1

2 2

= a1

=a

But

So

a= a a

1

2

a = a

1

2

a is the square

root of a.

THANK

YOU.

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