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January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology


IEEE P802.22 Wireless RANs

:Authors
Name
Company
Eli Sofer

Runcom
Technologies
Yossi Segal Runcom
Technologies

Address

Date: 2005-01-04

Phone

2 Hachoma St., 75655 +972 3 9528440


Rishon Lezion, Israel
2, achoma St. 75655
+972 3 952 8440
Rishon Lezion, Israel

email
elisofer@runcom.co.il
yossis@runcom.co.il

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>

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

1 Slide
1

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Abstract
The contribution presents a tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) technology which has been
endorsed in leading standards such as- ETSI DVB-RCT and IEEE802.16a,d and 16e. Essential
parameters of UpLink and DownLink and simulation results are presented. System capabilities
and advantages are also discussed. The tutorial could offer an insight and understanding of
OFDMA technology to be considered as a candidate for WRAN system

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

2 Slide
2

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Tutorial on
Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA)
Technology
Eli Sofer
Runcom Technologies Ltd

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

3 Slide
3

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Contents

OFDMA System Architecture


Illustrated Example
OFDMA System Properties
Coverage and Capacity

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA System
Architecture

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Duplexing Technique
FDD/TDD

Multiple Access Method


TDMA/OFDMA
OFDM Symbols allocated by TDMA
Sub-Carriers within an OFDM Symbol allocated by OFDMA

Diversity
Frequency, Time, Code (CPE and BS), Space Time
Coding, Antenna Array
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

6 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Duplexing - Principles
FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing ) Uses One Frequency
for the DownLink, and a Second Frequency for the
UpLink.
TDD (time Division Duplexing) Uses the same frequency
for the Downlink and the Uplink.
In any configuration the access method is OFDMA/TDMA .
DownLink

UpLink

FDD
F1 - Frequency band

F2 - Frequency band

DownLink

UpLink

TDD
F1 - Frequency band

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

F1 - Frequency band

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA-TDMA Principles
Using OFDMA/TDMA, Sub Channels are allocated in the
Frequency Domain, and OFDM Symbols allocated in the
.Time Domain
t

TDMA

TDMA\OFDMA

N
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

8 Slide
8

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

DownLink OFDMA Symbol

Sub-Channel Data Carriers

Symbol Pilots

Total Frequency Band


Guard Band

Guard Band

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

9 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

DownLink Specification
Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the
Frequency domain and n OFDMA time symbols in the
time domain, each burst consists of N data modulated
carriers.
Adaptive Modulation and Coding per Sub-Channel in
the Down-Link
Forward APC controlling (+6dB) (-6dB) digital gain
on the transmitted Sub-Channel
Supporting optional Space Time Coding employing
Alamouti STC.
Supporting optional Adaptive Array.
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example- DownLink Specification


FFT size : 2048
Guard Intervals : , 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and
Convolutional coding (k=7,G1=171,G2=133, keeping
overall coding rate to = ,
Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC),
Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to
= ,
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulation
Modulo 4, Pilot based Symbol Structure.
32 Sub-Channels of 48 data carriers each
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

11 Slide
11

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Downlink Pilot and Data Carriers Allocation Scheme


carrier index
symbol
index
n

L=0
0

n+1

12

30

N used -1

15

27

N used -1

21

N used -1

L=0

time
Allocation Key:

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

18

L=3
0

n+4

L=1
0

n+3

N used -1

L=2
0

n+2

24

12

24

Variable Location Pilot

12 Slide
12

N used -1
Fixed-location Pilot

Data

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Space Time Coding

Subcarrier
modulation

IFFT

Filter

DAC

RF

IFFT

Filter

DAC

RF

Tx
diversity
encoder

IFFT input
packing

Tx

Rx

RF

DAC

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Filter

Diversity
Combiner

FFT

13 Slide
13

Subchannel
demod.

LogLikelihood
ratios

Decoder

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

UpLink OFDMA Symbol


Pilots Carriers
Sub-Channel #1

Data Carriers
Sub-Channel #1

Pilots Carriers
Sub-Channel #1

Data Carriers
Sub-Channel #x

Total Frequency Band


Guard Band

Guard Band

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

14 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example of UpLink Specification


Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the
Frequency domain and 3 OFDMA time symbols in the
time domain, each burst consists of 144 data
modulated carriers.
Adaptive Modulation and Coding per User in the
UpLink
User Can be allocated 1 up to 32 Sub-Channels
2 Sub-Channels are used as the Ranging Sub-Channels
for User Ranging and fast Band-Width Request.
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

15 Slide
15

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example of UpLink Specification


FFT size : 2048
Guard Intervals : , 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and
Convolutional coding (k=7,G1=171,G2=133, keeping
overall coding rate to = ,
Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC),
Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to =
,
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulation
Modulo 13, Pilot based Sub-Channel Structure.
32 Sub-Channels of 53 carriers each, 5 carriers used as
pilots, 48 carriers used for data
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

16 Slide
16

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example for UpLink Sub-Channel Pilot and


Data Carriers Allocation Scheme
frequency
symbol
index
n

L=0
0

n+1

13

42

52

17

26

30

44

52

22

26

36

49 52

11

24 26

38

51 52

L=0

time
Allocation Key:

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

26 28

L=11
0

n+13

15

L=9
0

n+12

52

L=4
0

n+11

40

L=2
0 2

n+2

26 27

13

26 27

Variable Location Pilot

17 Slide
17

40

Fixed-location Pilot

52

Data

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation

All usable carriers are divided into 32 carrier groups


named basic group, each main group contains 53 basic
groups.
block 1
1

30

31

32

Frequency band
1
each group contains
53 carriers

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

2
3

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation


Carriers are allocated by a basic series and its cyclic permutations
for example:
Basic Series:
0,5,2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,22,18,21,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1
After two cyclic permutations we get:
2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,22,18,21,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1,0,5
User #2

User #1

10

21

22

Total Frequency band


Guard Band

Guard Band
User 1 = 0,5,2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,
User 2 = 2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,22,18,

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

22 ,18,21,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1
21 ,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1,0,5

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation

The Carriers of each Sub-Channel are spread all over the


usable frequency for best frequency diversity
The allocation by permutation gives an excellent Reuse
factor - almost 1.
The allocation by permutation give an excellent
interference spreading and averaging.

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

20 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Using CDMA like modulation for Ranging


The CDMA like synchronization is achieved by
allocating several of the usable Sub-Channels for the
Ranging process, the logic unit they consist is called a
Ranging Sub-Channel.
Onto the Ranging Sub-Channel users modulate a Pseudo
Noise (PN) sequence using BPSK modulation
The Base Station detects the different sequences and uses
the CIR that he derives from the sequences for:
Time and power synchronization
Decide on the user modulation and coding
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

21 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

DVB-RCT MAC Performance


S u c e s s fu l B W re q u e s ts p e r s lo t

2.5

1.5

0.5

4
5
6
Collision expectation value

10

Aloha vs. CDMA BW request (32 codes)


CDMA efficiency is better by a factor of six
CDMA latency is better by a factor of four
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

22 Slide
22

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Illustrated Example

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example

Subscriber Units at the Current OFDMA Symbol = 3


Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #1 = 12
Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #2 = 9
Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #3 = 6
Number Of New Subscriber-Units Requesting Services = 3
All Subscriber-Units Suffer Different Multi-Paths and
different Attenuation's

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example
Constellation at the Base Station

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example
Users Separation

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Example - Results
User Estimation
Constellation to Estiamte

Estimated vec

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5

-1.5

-2

-2
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

0.5

1.5

-2

27 Slide
27

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Results
User Estimation
Estimated vec

Constellation to Estiamte
2

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5

-1.5

-2
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

0.5

1.5

-2

-2

28 Slide
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-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Results
User Estimation
Constellation to Estiamte

Estimated vec

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5

-1.5
-2

-2
-2

-1.5

-1

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

-0.5

0.5

1.5

29 Slide
29

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Results
Finding New Subscriber-Units Requesting Services, Using the
Ranging Pilots (CDMA/OFDM Techniques)
Despreading on All Users

300

250

200

150

100

50

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

20

40

60

30 Slide
30

80

100

120

140

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA System Properties

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Interference Rejection/Avoidance
Narrowband Interference Rejection
Easy to Avoid/Reject Narrowband Dominant Interference .
Less Interfered Part of the Carrier Can Still Be Used .
User SubCarriers
Allocation

Interference

SubCarriers

Interference

Nulled
SubCarriers
SubCarriers

Total Frequency band


Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

PAPR Reduction

Using shaping on the signal peaks


Limiting the PAPR to a constant value by
vector reduction

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Spectrum Properties
Rectangular Spectrum Shape (Brick Wall)
Small Frequency Guard band
dB

OFDM
Single Carrier
Scheme
-80

4 MHz

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Frequency
(MHz)

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January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Spectrum Properties

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Group Delay
In OFDM, channel impairment are solved in the same
way Group Delays are solved, by Channel
estimation

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Phase Noise Effects

Phase Noise Effect on


OFDM
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Phase Noise Effect on


S.C
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Timing Sensitivity
Low timing sensitivity is needed, and simple phase and channel
.estimators solve timing problems

Frequency Sensitivity
solved by locking onto the Base-Station transmission and deriving
.the Subscriber Units clocks from it

Equalization
No Equalizers are needed, channel impairment and timing
problems are both solved with simple phase and channel
estimators
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

System Coverage and


Capacity

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Using Reuse Factor of 1

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Horizontal
Sub-hannel
s Set 2
F1

Horizontal
Sub-hannel
s Set 1
F1

Vertical
Sub-hannel
s Set 1
F1

Vertical
Sub-hannel
s Set 2
F1

By allocating different Sub-Channels to different sectors


we can reach reuse factor of 1 with up to 12 sectors
(changing the polarity enhances the performance)

40 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Capacity
Use modulations with various Bit/Hz capabilities as
Adaptive N-QAM.
Use Adaptive FEC (Convolutional & Reed-Solomon or
Turbo code)
Maximal frequency reuse between cells/sectors
(close
to 1).
Maximum sectors allocation.
The use of statistical Multiplexing and concentration.
Adaptive Carrier Allocations.
Adaptive Power Control
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Coverage

OFDM Cells
(64 mode)

OFDMA Cell
(2k mode)

64QAM users
16QAM users
QPSK users
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Coverage - Simulations

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Coverage - Simulations

Multi Sector Coverage, 3 Sectors, 3 Frequencies, achieves


2.8Bits/s/Hz/Cell, 22.5Mbps/Sector
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Coverage - Simulations

Multi Sector Coverage, 6 Sectors, 6 Frequencies, achieves


2.8Bits/s/Hz/Cell, 22.5Mbps/Sector
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA Advantages- Summary (1)


Averaging interference's from neighboring cells, by using different
basic carrier permutations between users in different cells.
Interferences within the cell are averaged by using allocation with
cyclic permutations.
Enables orthogonality in the uplink by synchronizing users in time
and frequency.
Enables Multipath mitigation without using Equalizers and training
sequences.
Enables Single Frequency Network coverage, where coverage
problem exists and gives excellent coverage.

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA Advantages - Summary (2)


Enables spatial diversity by using antenna diversity at the Base
Station and possible at the Subscriber Unit.
Enables adaptive modulation for every user QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM and 256QAM.
Enables adaptive carrier allocation in multiplication of 23 carriers
= nX23 carriers up to 1587 carriers (all data carriers).
Offers Frequency diversity by spreading the carriers all over the
used spectrum.
Offers Time diversity by optional interleaving of carrier groups in
time.

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

47 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA Advantages - Summary (3)


Using the cell capacity to the utmost by adaptively using
the highest modulation a user can use, this is allowed by
the gain added when less carriers are allocated (up to
18dB gain for 23 carrier allocation instead of 1587
carriers), therefore gaining in overall cell capacity.
The power gain can be translated to distance - 3 times the
distance for R4 and 8 time for R2 for LOS conditions.
Enabling the usage of Indoor Omni Directional antennas
for the users.
MAC complexity is the same as for TDMA systems.
Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

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Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

OFDMA Advantages - Summary (4)


Allocating carrier by OFDMA/TDMA strategy.
Minimal delay per OFDMA symbol of 300sec.
Using Small burst per user of about 100 symbols for
better statistical multiplexing and smaller jitter.
User symbol is several times longer then for TDMA
systems.
Using the FEC to the outmost by error detection of
disturbed frequencies.

Submission
Runcom Technologies Ltd.

49 Slide
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Eli Sofer, Runcom